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CSI-LAB: una estrategia innovadora de aprendizaje en medicina forense

Tec Monterrey — Edu Bits - 18 Enero, 2021 - 11:52
“El Aprendizaje Basado en Retos en la medicina forense y patología, es algo novedoso. Los alumnos se mostraron emocionados de vivir una experiencia llena de incertidumbre, aventura y reto”.

Artículo de divulgación científica realizado en colaboración con Writing Lab del Tecnológico de Monterrey.

¿Te imaginas aprender al estilo de la famosa serie original de televisión CSI: Crime Scene Investigation?, donde un grupo de forenses y criminólogos trabajan juntos para resolver misteriosos crímenes a través del análisis de datos, evidencias y pruebas científicas utilizando tecnología de punta para resolver los casos que se presentan. Pues bien, los profesores del Tec de Monterrey hicieron esto posible. Con el liderazgo de la Dra. Irma Eraña-Rojas así como el asesoramiento de varios docentes que participaron en esta práctica, los estudiantes trabajaron con “escenas de crimen” simuladas en equipos multidisciplinarios. Los estudiantes debían identificar: la evidencia relevante en la escena del crimen, la posible alteración de la escena, presuntas víctimas y perpetradores. Este ejercicio es parte de su formación profesional que les servirá para conocer los elementos que favorecen una mejor calidad en los procesos de la ciencia forense.

En esta experiencia educativa de una semana de duración, los estudiantes tuvieron el desafío de analizar los procesos realizados por expertos del Instituto de Criminalística y Servicios Periciales y el Servicio Médico Forense del Estado de Nuevo León, México. El enfoque educativo empleado en esta actividad fue el Aprendizaje Basado en Retos (ABR) o Challenge-Based Learning (CBL), por su nombre en inglés. Es una estrategia pedagógica que expone a los estudiantes a situaciones de la vida real donde el nivel de incertidumbre es alto y se desafían los conocimientos adquiridos previamente (1).

Imagen 1: Ejemplo de una simulación de la escena del crimen utilizando un maniquí.

La implementación del Aprendizaje Basado en Retos en la medicina forense y patología es algo novedoso ya que los fundamentos de estas ciencias son regularmente adquiridos mediante clases teóricas, por ello, el reto del equipo docente fue construir múltiples actividades, desde conferencias con expertos, prácticas simuladas, hasta visitas a diversas áreas de investigación pericial. La simulación clínica a través de la inclusión de fotos, realidad aumentada y virtual, maniquíes, robots y pacientes estandarizados es una excelente alternativa de aprendizaje a la autopsia forense (2).

“El 88.9 % de los alumnos que participó en esta experiencia educativa consideró que amplió su perspectiva sobre las ciencias forenses y 73.1 % valoró que esta práctica le dio valor a su entrenamiento académico”.

Los retos que enfrentaron los alumnos se hicieron a través de equipos multidisciplinarios donde participaron estudiantes de Medicina, Derecho, Mercadotecnia e Ingenierías, propiciando el desarrollo de competencias transversales innovadoras e interdisciplinarias. El diseño pedagógico incluyó un balance de sesiones teóricas (módulos) y prácticas (resolución de retos) tanto en las instalaciones del Tecnológico de Monterrey como en las instalaciones del Servicio Médico Forense del Estado de Nuevo León.

Al inicio de la actividad los estudiantes se mostraron escépticos, pero emocionados de estar en una experiencia real, una mezcla de incertidumbre y aventura, pero todos con un gran compromiso por experimentar una situación que los llevaría a aprender o aplicar nuevos conceptos de una forma innovadora. En la encuesta final el 88.9 % de los alumnos consideró que esta experiencia amplió su perspectiva sobre las ciencias forenses y 73.1 % valoró que esta práctica le dio valor a su entrenamiento académico.

Imagen 2: Los estudiantes analizan la escena del crimen utilizando un maniquí.

El objetivo principal fue que los estudiantes comprendieran la complejidad de gestionar la escena de un crimen. Esto implica convertirse en un investigador forense con la presencia de la policía en la escena; la búsqueda y documentación de pruebas biológicas, fotografías, bocetos y diagramas de la escena; almacenamiento final de la evidencia y establecimiento de la cadena de custodia y preparación de los formatos para el informe de la investigación.

“Los estudiantes tuvieron la oportunidad de autoevaluarse al poner a prueba sus conocimientos previos para resolver un reto específico”.

Durante el entrenamiento intensivo que recibieron los estudiantes también participaron en simulacros, entrevistaron a especialistas médicos que participan en autopsias forenses y realizaron visitas a diferentes agencias gubernamentales para comprender los procesos involucrados en una investigación formal. La evaluación de los entregables del CSI-LAB se hizo a través de la elaboración de videos de resolución de los retos de medicina forense, con una propuesta y evaluación de viabilidad. Los profesores evaluadores fueron expertos en diversas áreas y la percepción de los estudiantes fue excelente.

Esta experiencia dejó muchas lecciones tanto para alumnos como profesores. Los estudiantes tuvieron la oportunidad de autoevaluarse al poner a prueba sus conocimientos previos para resolver un reto específico. Para el profesor implicó una nueva forma de transmitir el conocimiento a través del análisis del reto, nuevas formas de trabajo colaborativo y multidisciplinario, además de tener un nuevo rol como co-investigador para la resolución del reto. Será necesaria mayor atención en la preparación de los profesores para elaborar los instrumentos y las técnicas de aprendizaje en una nueva modalidad.

La implementación de un nuevo modelo educativo implica un cambio drástico en la manera de enseñar y aprender. El modelo educativo Tec21 del Tecnológico de Monterrey revolucionó la forma de la enseñanza en el mundo. Desarrollar nuevas habilidades requiere una transición del aula presencial a un entorno educativo inmersivo, rico y auténtico en el mundo real. El modelo Tec21 consta de cuatro pilares fundamentales:

  • Flexibilidad (dónde y cuándo aprender).

  • Profesores inspiradores (actualizados y expertos en herramientas digitales).

  • Vivencia memorable (educación integral).

  • Aprendizaje Basado en Retos (Challenge Based Learning, CBL).

Esta historia fue publicada por el grupo de la Dra. Eraña-Rojas en uno de los journals de mayor impacto del area: MEDICAL EDUCATION (una revista Q1) en la sección exclusiva: REALLY GOOD STUFF (3), lo que posteriormente dio pie a expandir la investigación y las conclusiones así como también publicar una versión más extensa en la revista líder mundial de la medicina forense: JOURNAL OF FORENSIC AND LEGAL MEDICINE (Q1; 4). La resonancia e impacto de estas publicaciones es significativa al tener cinco citas internacionales por grupos de Alemania, China e Inglaterra a sólo un año de su publicación, según la base de datos SCOPUS index.

Esta experiencia pone de manifiesto que el CSI-LAB fue una propuesta de excelencia didáctica en la educación médica que hoy es una plataforma esencial en la implementación del modelo Tec21.

Este artículo es una adaptación de la publicación en el número especial dedicado a la educación en el Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2019.101873

Acerca de los autores

Irma E. Eraña-Rojas (ierana@tec.mx) es Médica Cirujana con especialidad en Anatomía patológica cursando el Fellowship in Health Professions Education: Accreditation and Assessment (FAIMER), Associate Fellow for Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). Profesora de patología y directora de Carrera de Médico Cirujano del Tecnológico de Monterrey campus Monterrey.

Mildred Vanessa López Cabrera (mildredlopez@tec.mx) es Directora de Innovación e Investigación Educativa de la Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud. Tiene un doctorado en Innovación Educativa, Fellow del FAIMER Institute (Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research) y la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

Elena Ríos Barrientos (elena.rb@tec.mx) es Médico Cirujano (ITESM), especialidad en Medicina Forense (IPN), subespecialidad en antropología criminal. Instructora en Simulación Clínica por el CMS-Harvard-Hospital Virtual Valdecilla. Profesor y Directora Nacional de Simulación Clínica. Diez años de experiencia en Simulación Clínica.

Jorge Membrillo Hernández (jmembrillo@tec.mx) es Profesor de Biotecnología, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de México. Postdoctoral: Harvard Medical School. Ph.D Biotecnología: King's College London. Bsc. Investigación Biomédica: UNAM. El interés del Dr. Jorge Membrillo es la implementación de cursos bajo el modelo Tec21 utilizando la técnica didáctica de Challenge Based Learning (Aprendizaje Basado en Retos)

Referencias

  1. Observatorio de Innovación Educativa del Tecnológico de Monterrey. Aprendizaje basado en retos. Monterrey: Disponible en: http://observatorio.itesm.mx/edutrendsabr/.

  2. Jones R.M. (2017). Getting to the core of medicine: developing undergraduate forensic medicine and pathology teaching. J. Forensic Leg. Med. 52:245–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2017.10.006.

  3. Eraña-Rojas, I.E., López-Cabrera, M. V., Ríos-Barrientos, E., Membrillo-Hernández, J. (2019). A context-rich educational experience through crime scene analysis. Medical Education Really Good Stuff: Lessons learned through innovation in medical education. 53:1138-1139. https://doi: 10.1111/medu.13989

  4. Eraña-Rojas, I.E., López-Cabrera, M. V., Ríos-Barrientos, E., Membrillo-Hernández, J. (2019). A challenge based learning experience in forensic medicine. J. Forensic Leg. Med. 68:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2019.101873

Edición por Rubí Román (rubi.roman@tec.mx) - Observatorio de Innovación Educativa

Sobre Writing Lab

Writing Lab es una iniciativa dentro de TecLabs que se dedica al desarrollo de la cultura de la investigación en innovaciones educativas y al mejoramiento de la producción académica de la comunidad docente en el Tecnológico de Monterrey.

Financiamiento y soporte técnico es proporcionado solo para profesores del Tec para asistir a conferencias o publicar artículos en journals.

Para más información visita: https://writinglab-tec.com/
Facebook: http://facebook.com/WritingLabTEC
Twitter: @TecWriting
Instagram: instagram.com/writinglabtec/

 

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Government action called for to lift HE students out of digital poverty

JISC News - 15 Enero, 2021 - 16:35
18 January 2021

By ignoring university students while helping other disadvantaged learners to study online, the government and telecommunications companies risk creating a ‘lost generation’ of young people who are missing out on their education.

That’s the view of Jisc, Universities UK, GuildHE and ucisa, which have written to the secretary of state for education, Gavin Williamson MP, calling for an urgent rethink because: 

  • Half of higher education students are digitally disadvantaged
  • Many families are at risk of slipping into poverty and cannot afford the data costs required for online study
  • Digital and data poverty is the main issue that prevents effective delivery of online learning
  • Demand for hardship funding from universities has doubled

The letter (pdf) says:

“While we welcome the government’s action to support college learners through the Get Help With Technology scheme, there has been little or nothing to support higher education (HE) students in the same way.

“Not only is this unfair, but it causes learners distress, harms their wellbeing and creates inequalities, in particular for disadvantaged students.

“It is critical that the 1.8 million university students who are having to learn remotely have equal access to data and devices.

“In universities, many students cannot access their education due to the cost of data, living in shared accommodation (whether at home or in halls), or in rural areas where connectivity is weak.

“Similarly, many parents of students who are above the poverty line are now borderline due to the pandemic and, while they can support their children to remain in education, they cannot afford the additional cost of subsidising their child’s connectivity - especially for those also paying the bill for broadband bills in unused student housing.” 

Indicating that around half of HE students are digitally disadvantaged, the letter cites the learning and teaching reimagined research project conducted by Jisc with sector partners, which found that digital and data poverty is the main issue that prevents delivering online learning effectively.

The letter goes on to highlight that, despite the welcome extra government funding to alleviate hardship for HE students, the demands on hardship funding have doubled, putting significant strain on university resources.

In conclusion, the letter, which calls for an ‘urgent’ meeting with government and telecoms companies, says:

 “Universities have moved mountains to provide learning and teaching online since the first lockdown and are now much better equipped to deliver a quality curriculum online.

“However, without urgent action to ensure students can get online affordably, the government is risking creating an even deeper and more long-term digital divide in education.

“We urge you to take action now on behalf of all higher education students experiencing digital poverty, or risk creating a lost generation of young people who are missing out on their education.”

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FE experts give top tips for teaching in lockdown 2021

JISC News - 11 Enero, 2021 - 15:12
12 January 2021

The enforced shift last spring to online work and study took its toll on staff and students alike.

While that experience was difficult, it will have served to upskill many teachers and practitioners, who have new-found confidence working digitally. However, the pressure of working purely online again - at least for the early part of 2021 - remains a worry for some.

To help, here’s a package of practical advice from experts at Jisc and teachers, practitioners and leaders across the sector. It covers teaching methods, of course, as well as wellbeing and online safety.

For further information and advice, try Jisc’s dedicated coronavirus advice page, or contact your account manager.

Online delivery

South West College in Northern Ireland shares four steps to better online delivery, while another NI organisation, South East Regional College, share their own experience and cover similar topics.

Ashford College describes how to improve engagement through lockdown and Plumpton College demonstrates how to solve the tricky issue of moving practical courses online.

Enhancing remote-access education is Weston College’s new virtual classroom - a first for UK FE.

Grimsby Institute (now part of the TEC Partnership) has been using edtech for years and talks about how that experience enabled it to shift teaching online within 48 hours of the first lockdown announcement. Its best practice is an example to all.

There are further examples of good practice in Jisc's report, shaping the digital future of FE and skills.

For advice about digital pedagogy, Jisc has produced a toolkit aimed at helping members to make informed choices when embedding digital into the curriculum.

The Welsh Government has just published information on blended learning, developed under its COVID-19 resilience plan for the post-16 sector. Co-authored by Jisc, it includes a short guide and practical tips.

Several members from edtech demonstrator colleges have shared their personal top tips in this short series of videos:

Digital resources

Jisc’s head of digital content services for FE and skills, Karla Youngs, put together advice for teachers who need help to find and use digital resources, and you can read how Hull College made its e-books and other online resources more visible to staff.

Don’t forget that Jisc has a free e-books service for colleges.

Digital divide

The digital divide has been all-too apparent since the pandemic stuck, and despite lobbying from Jisc and the AoC among others, support from telecoms and government is still not solving the problem.

Walsall College is among those where BAME students are particularly adversely affected. Walsall’s experience of tackling the problem may be of help to others.

Online safety

For those working and studying online there are safety and safeguarding policies and procedures to consider, or check out Jisc’s guide to online safety.

Meanwhile, our safeguarding expert, Nelson Ody, answers the question: ‘What can colleges do to protect homeworking students from harmful online content?'

Westminster College provides all learners with an online agreement to sign, covering aspects such as online bullying, privacy and online etiquette, so learners are clear about what is expected of them and know where they can go for further support.

Cyber criminals have been quick to take advantage of the pandemic, so here’s some useful information on how to protect staff and students.

Digital wellbeing

Taking care of mental and physical wellbeing has been a concern for us all in the pandemic – and, for many people, that includes digital wellbeing.  [#insertinlinedriver covid#]

Members at East Coast and BCoT colleges shared their approach last summer, and Jisc has further advice on the impact of technologies and digital services on mental, physical and emotional health.

There’s a raft of further information on Jisc’s dedicated coronavirus advice page, and colleges might find some of our training sessions useful, especially this free course on 20 January about delivering webinars, classes and meetings online.

Beyond the technology: why wellbeing is so important, a student's story

JISC News - 11 Enero, 2021 - 11:02
14 January 2021

This week we speak to Hayley Mulenda, all about student mental health. Hayley is an award winning international speaker, author and change agent, who speaks openly about her struggles with mental health as a student, and how best to support students who need help.

In late 2020, an Office for National Statistics (ONS) survey exposed the devastating impact of COVID-19 on students’ mental health in England. 57% of the 2,000 higher education students surveyed reported a worsening in their mental health and wellbeing during the autumn term, and 63% felt COVID-19 posed either a big or significant risk to their mental or physical health.

Hayley was the keynote speaker at last year’s Digifest – which is where this honest, informative and personal interview was recorded. Hayley is a force to be reckoned with, and approaches the subject of wellbeing with a realistic and practical outlook, sharing tips, advice helpful approaches to support student wellbeing.

This interview took place at last year's Digifest in March 2020.

Show notes

Jisc and Emerge Education are going to be releasing a report around wellbeing towards the end of the month, so keep an eye out for that.

In the meantime, we’ve got guides that might help – such as ensuring continuity of learning during enforced absence/student wellbeing, and a Code of practice for wellbeing and mental health/learning analytics.

You can listen to Hayley's podcast 'Building You' on Spotify, Apple Podcasts and Soundcloud.

Our coronavirus page contains advice, guidance, briefings, and blogs to support you during this time.

Learn more about Digifest 2021 and book your tickets.

If you’ve been using technology to support staff and/or student wellbeing, and would like to share your experiences, do get in touch with our podcast team.

Episode guest

Hayley Mulenda
Multi-award-winning international speaker, author and change agent
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Episode host

Georgie Myers
Media and content officer, Jisc

 

Episode producer

Mark Lennon
Digital campaign manager, Jisc

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