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Disrupting and democratising higher education provision or entrenching academic elitism: towards a model of MOOCs adoption at African universities

OLDaily - 14 Enero, 2017 - 05:03


Patient Rambe, Mamello Moeti, Educational Technology Research and Development, Jan 13, 2017

MOOCs have the potential to support education in Africa. "The disruptive potential of MOOCs lies in their capacity to overcome the social exclusion of vulnerable groups based on gender, age, socio-economic status and ethnic origin." But the MOOC movement is not necessarily benign. "Behind the MOOC rhetoric of disrupting and democratizing higher education lies the projection of top academic brands on the marketing pedestal, financial piggybacking on the hype and politics of academic exclusion." In particular, "The core-to-periphery guise of the current MOOC system is unacceptable. It manifests in the design of most MOOC platforms and courses (with some exceptions) for consumption rather than adaptation." Well stated, and well (and extensively) argued.

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Categorías: General

Binge learning

Learning with 'e's - 13 Enero, 2017 - 23:54
I have a confession to make. Over the festive period I binge-watched a number of DVD boxed sets. I watched multiple episodes of the Walking Dead, Scandal and Game of Thrones. It hasn't got any better. Now work has started again, I've been spending time each evening watching The West Wing.

I'm not going to lie. Watching DVD boxed sets is really addictive. These writers know what they are doing. No sooner has one plot been resolved, than another cliffhanger is presented. They keep you coming back for more. 'I'll just watch one more episode,' I promise myself. Three hours later, I'm still there, rooted to the spot, my imagination running wild. Maybe I'll grow out of this one day soon.

This got me thinking. During my undergraduate days, while studying psychology, I did a very similar thing. But back then I binge studied. As I was studying part time, while holding down a full time job, I had to develop some special strategies not just to avoid falling behind. I wanted to stay ahead of the curve.

I managed to get hold of every text book on the reading list, and devour them before each new academic year started. It was absolutely compelling. I was totally in the grip of psychology and couldn't get enough. I recall spending hours in the evenings and at weekends with my head buried in one text book after another, making notes, colour coding pages, highlighting text, and writing assignments. Several times I swear, I studied right around the clock, went into work the next day and then crashed out that evening.

I wouldn't recommend this form of study to just anyone. But if you are obsessed with something, you are likely to find as many ways you can to make it happen. I was like that with my academic studies. It was the compelling nature of the content I was learning that kept me engaged with such intensity.

The question for all teachers is - how do we achieve high levels of sustained engagement with our students? What do we need to do, or produce, or develop that will compel students to learn and learn and learn? For each of us, a different answer will occur. Feel free to share your ideas below in the comments box. I will get round to reading them, but.... first I'm off to watch another episode or three of The West Wing.

Photo from Max Pixel


Binge learning by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.Posted by Steve Wheeler from Learning with e's

The Evolving Economics of Educational Materials and Open Educational Resources: Toward Closer Alignment with the Core Values of Education

iterating toward openness - 13 Enero, 2017 - 21:34

Last year Bob Reiser invited me to contribute a chapter to the fourth edition of Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, to be published by Pearson. I agreed on the conditions that I would retain copyright in the chapter and that it would appear in the book under a Creative Commons license. Pearson agreed. Now that the book is appearing in print, I’m publishing the full-text chapter here so that there will be an easier-to-access open access version of the chapter available online. If you’re interested, the full citation is:

Wiley, D. (2017). The Evolving Economics of Educational Materials and Open Educational Resources: Toward Closer Alignment with the Core Values of Education. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Summary of Key Principles
  1. Education is sharing. Ideas, knowledge, skills, and attitudes are public goods. This means they are nonrivalrous and nonexcludable, and therefore easy to share.
  1. Expressions of ideas, knowledge, skills, and attitudes captured in physical artifacts like books are private goods, meaning they are both rivalrous and excludable, making them difficult to share.
  1. When concrete expressions of ideas, knowledge, skills, and attitudes are converted from a physical into a digital format, this changes them from private goods back to being public goods, once again making them easier to share.
  1. Copyright law places artificial limits on our ability to use technology to share educational materials. This changes these public goods into club goods, once again making them difficult to share.
  1. Educational materials published under an open license are called open educational resources (OER). When digital educational materials become OER, they are converted back into public goods. Over 1 billion openly licensed materials are published online.
  1. Open educational resources are far better aligned with the core values of education than materials published under an all rights reserved traditional copyright. This closer alignment creates opportunities for less expensive, more flexible, more effective education.
  1. Because of their close alignment with the core values of education, adopting OER in place of traditionally copyrighted educational resources provides unique opportunities and benefits to faculty and students. Instructional designers, faculty, and other educators and administrators should develop a basic understanding of OER.
Education is Sharing

This chapter tells the story of the negative impact of copyright on education and the emergence of open educational resources as a response. Work in the field of open educational resources is grounded in a specific understanding of the nature of education; specifically, the notion that education is sharing. It behooves us therefore, at the outset, to be specific about what it means to share, and how it is that education is an instance of sharing.

Sharing, as it is generally understood, involves a willing offer and a willing acceptance. For example, when one child offers some M&Ms to another child, and that child happily accepts the offer, we would label this as an instance of sharing. As a counterexample, when one child offers some M&Ms to another child, and that child declines them, we would not say that sharing has occurred. Likewise, when a well-meaning parent forces one child to divide their M&Ms with another child against her will, we would again not say that sharing has occurred. This framework of a willing offer and a willing acceptance is the core of the commonsense meaning of sharing.

When I say that education is sharing, this is what I mean – that education involves offers willingly made and willingly accepted. When one person willingly offers to share their knowledge, expertise, skills, and passion with another, and that person willingly accepts the offer, we will rightly call this education. Notice that this sharing can flow from a traditional “teacher” to a traditional “student” as well as from a “student” to a “teacher.” We tend to think of education as a setting in which teachers do all the sharing, but a talented teacher is always encouraging students to share with the teacher and with other students – questions, concerns, insights, etc. Homework, exams, and other assignments are nothing more than a formalized way of encouraging students to share the current state of their understanding with teachers.

Students tend to pay particular honor and tribute to those educators who offered to share something of themselves – time, concern, and care beyond the requirements of the job description. Educators fondly remember those special students who offered to share something of themselves – effort, dedication, and commitment beyond what was required by the syllabus.

Truly, education is sharing.

Education as sharing takes a family of shapes and forms when we interact face to face. In this chapter I want to focus particularly on the shapes and forms taken when the offerer and accepter are separated in time. This desire to share with others who are not immediately present leads to the creation of educational materials – textbooks, videos, podcasts, games, simulations, and other media in which instructional designers, faculty, and others attempt to reach out across the void to share what they know, think, and feel with others.

For centuries this desire to share with others across time manifested itself primarily in writing – on stone, wood, leather, pottery, papyrus, and parchment. A revolution was set off when Gutenberg combined metallic movable type, oil-based inks, and the screw press historically used to make olive oil and wine, into a practical package capable of mass-producing copies of the written word. While Gutenberg’s books were orders of magnitude more affordable than the handmade codices that preceded them, they were still relatively difficult to share.

As anyone who has tried to check out a popular book at the library knows, sharing books with others can be a frustrating experience. This is because books are what economists refer to as private goods, meaning they have two specific characteristics: they are rivalrous and excludable. Rivalrous means that one person’s use of a book prevents simultaneous use of the book by others. Other examples of rivalrous goods include my car, my socks, and my chewing gum. If you are driving my car, wearing my socks, or chewing my gum, I cannot be. Excludable means it is possible to prevent people who haven’t purchased the book from being able to enjoy the benefits of owning a copy. Examples of excludable goods also include my car, my socks, and my chewing gum. If I don’t want you to drive, wear, or chew my things I only need to keep them locked up.

Contrast the private goods nature of books with the public goods nature of the ideas, stories, and concepts expressed within a book. My knowledge of the Pythagorean Theorem and its uses does not prevent you from simultaneously knowing these same things (i.e., knowledge of the theorem is nonrivalrous). Likewise, it is not practically possible for me to prevent you from learning about the Pythagorean Theorem (i.e., knowledge of the theorem is nonexcludable). In a letter written to Isaac McPhereson in 1813, Thomas Jefferson explained:

If nature has made any one thing less susceptible than all others of exclusive property, it is the action of the thinking power called an idea, which an individual may exclusively possess as long as he keeps it to himself; but the moment it is divulged, it forces itself into the possession of every one, and the receiver cannot dispossess himself of it. Its peculiar character, too, is that no one possesses the less, because every other possesses the whole of it. He who receives an idea from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without darkening me. That ideas should freely spread from one to another over the globe, for the moral and mutual instruction of man, and improvement of his condition, seems to have been peculiarly and benevolently designed by nature, when she made them, like fire, expansible over all space, without lessening their density in any point, and like the air in which we breathe, move, and have our physical being, incapable of confinement or exclusive appropriation.

The nonrivalrous, nonexcludable nature of ideas is an absolutely key, foundational concept that typically goes completely unexamined and unappreciated in courses on instructional design, learning science, and epistemology, yet the entire enterprise of education is possible only because it is true. Ideas are public goods. To clarify this point, imagine for a moment a world in which ideas are rivalrous. To teach you everything I know about task analysis, I would have to forget everything I know about task analysis. To teach would be immediately to forget, like handing a baton of knowledge off to the next runner in a relay race, immediately depriving the original knower of what she had known. In this world, Friere’s (1970) description of banking education would be quite literal – teachers would not only make deposits of knowledge into students’ heads, they would have to literally withdraw it from their own in order to do so.

The knowledge, skills, and attitudes that instructional designers, faculty, and others work to help students develop are public goods. In some circumstances people wish to share these ideas with people from whom they are separated by time. Since Gutenberg, this desire to share has often led people to express their ideas in books. However – and this point is critical – something crucial changes about ideas when this means of expression is employed. The pure, nonrivalrous, and nonexcludable idea is captured in a physical, rivalrous, excludable book.

Networked Digital Technologies, Sharing, and Education

The internet has been hailed as revolutionary by many people and for many reasons. For those interested in education, perhaps the most revolutionary aspect of the internet is its impact on our capacity to share. As indicated in Table 1, while expressing knowledge via a physical means, such as via printed books, captures a public good inside a private good, the internet, which is a digital means of expression, offers a significantly different alternative. When ideas are expressed in digital form and those expressions are made available over the network, the expressions continue to be public goods, at least from a practical perspective (legal issues will be discussed later). While only one person can read a printed copy of the New York Times, and it is easy to prevent you from getting a copy of the newspaper if you won’t pay, a million people can all read nytimes.com simultaneously.

Table 1. A Naïve Classification of Knowledge and Expressions of Knowledge

Nature of Expression Example Type of Good “Pure” ideas Knowledge of details of yesterday’s weather Public Goods

  Physical expressions of ideas Details of yesterday’s weather described in a traditional newspaper Private Goods Digital expressions of ideas Details of yesterday’s weather described online Public Goods

 

The impact of the public good-preserving nature of the internet on our capacity to share (and therefore educate) cannot be overstated. Before the internet, if we wished to provide 100 students with a syllabus that they could read and review at a later time, we were required to print 100 copies of the syllabus. After the internet, we need only place a single copy of the syllabus online and all students can access that one copy simultaneously. Rather than sending students to the media center where they have to wait their turn to check out a VHS cassette or DVD, we can simply post a video to YouTube. Rather than purchase dozens of copies of Pride and Prejudice for literature class, we can simply point students to the copy on Project Gutenberg.

This dramatic increase in our technical capacity to share has led to a dramatic increase in people’s willingness to share. It can be difficult to want to share private goods like a cherished book, a french fry, or a favorite CD. This is because when you take home my book or my CD, or eat my french fry, I can no longer enjoy them. However, it is much easier to share a public good. You don’t hesitate to invite your friends to watch that hysterical YouTube video you just saw, because their viewing the video does not interfere with or prevent you from doing so at the same time.

The move from physical copies of educational materials (private goods) to digital copies of educational materials (public goods) makes possible a revolution in the reach and impact of education. However, making it possible doesn’t make it legal.

The Impact of Copyright Law

While the creation of the internet continues to vastly improve our technical capability to share, and therefore educate, there are factors beyond technical capabilities that must be considered. Long before the internet was a gleam in an engineer’s eye, governments began granting copyrights to authors of creative works. Copyright is a government-enforced monopoly that reserves the exclusive permission to engage in certain activities to the copyright holder, prohibiting the public from engaging in these activities without first securing the permission of the rights holder. Core amongst these regulated activities are the making of copies and the distributing of copies. Note that these regulated activities are also exactly those activities that are most effortlessly facilitated by the internet.

Historically, copyright law has followed nature in recognizing an important difference between ideas (which are public goods) and the expression of ideas (which have historically been private goods). Ideas themselves are not eligible for copyright protection, while expressions of ideas are eligible for copyright protection. Early in the history of the United States, people who were interested in protecting and exercising their copyrights were required to apply for copyright protection. This was a sensible approach, as the average person had no intent to commercialize the overwhelming majority of the potentially copyrightable things s/he created each day. This requirement to register approach recognized that commerce was the exception, not the rule, of life– commerce was a small subset of life and society.

More recently, however, as a result of agreements such as the Berne Convention and the later Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), the full force of copyright protection is granted automatically from the moment a creative work is expressed in any medium, whether or not the creator of that work wants copyright protection. This is the case whether the means of expression is physical or digital. If your country became either a signatory to Berne or party to TRIPS, something odd has happened. The blurry picture of your carpet accidentally taken by your four year old now enjoys copyright protection equal to that enjoyed by Star Wars: The Force Awakens or the latest Beyoncé album. In the eyes of the law, commerce is now the assumed default in all aspects of life and society – commerce is the rule and sharing is the exception.

The everyday realities of life are at odds with the law’s view of commerce as the default. Whether you consider people sharing billions of popular memes and photos on platforms like Facebook or Tumblr, or teachers swapping syllabi and lesson plans with each other, all of these materials are automatically and fully copyrighted by their creators and sharing them is illegal without a license granting you permission to share. As Harvard Law Professor Larry Lessig has written, modern copyright law has made criminals of us all (Lessig, 2008).

“Fair use” is an exemption written directly into copyright law that allows a copyrighted work to be used without the rights holder’s permission under certain circumstances. However, fair use and similar copyright exceptions theoretically provide the means for educators to make use of copyrighted materials without a copyright holder’s permission in a very poorly defined set of circumstances. However, large corporations who profit from selling access to copyrighted materials work actively to undermine the public’s practical ability to make fair uses. Copyright protections are now bolstered by legislation like the United States’ Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), which prohibits educators and others from circumventing copyright protection technology to engage in lawful uses of copyrighted material. Even when a teacher can legitimately claim that the way she wants to use a copyrighted work in her classroom is a fair use, the DMCA criminalizes the act of working around digital rights management in order to make a fair use.

While the internet is constantly making it easier for us to share with each other, copyright and related laws make it increasingly difficult, and generally illegal, for us to do so. While digital resources would otherwise be public goods that can be freely shared and used by all, the copyright restrictions automatically forced on all digital resources make them artificially excludable. In this state, they are neither public goods nor private goods, but what economists call “club goods.” Club goods are resources that are nonrivalrous but excludable, like cable or satellite TV. My watching a cable television show on my television doesn’t prevent you from watching the same show on your television (nonrivalrous), but the cable or satellite operator makes it impossible for either of us to do so unless we have paid to do so (excludable). In other words, you can only access club goods if you’ve paid to be part of the club.

A Return to Sharing: Open Educational Resources

Because digital resources are inherently public goods and consequently easy to share, they present incredible opportunities for education. There is clear and obvious alignment between the nature of education, which is sharing, and the nature of digital resources, which are nonrivalrous and nonexcludable. Only when digital resources are saddled with copyright restrictions do they lose their alignment with the educational enterprise. The fact that publishers and others go out of their way, spending millions of dollars and significant research and development effort, to break this alignment by making digital resources artificially excludable is exasperating. The unfettered sharing enabled by digital resources presents humanity’s best hope for achieving education for all, yet all major education companies work proactively to undermine this capability.

A growing proportion of educators – and society more broadly – is rejecting what they feel to be the overreach of commercial concerns into their classrooms and lives. In response to this overreach, they are creating and promoting alternatives that enable broad and easy sharing within the framework of existing copyright law. The best known of these initiatives is Creative Commons, a non-profit organization that creates and provides free, pre-written copyright licenses that creators can use to grant to the public broad permissions to use their works in a wide range of ways. According to a report written with support of major search engines like Google, Creative Commons estimates that the number of CC-licensed works available online is over 1 billion (Creative Commons, 2015).

When educational materials are licensed using an open copyright license like the Creative Commons licenses, they are called “open educational resources” or OER. OER, then, are educational resources whose copyright licenses provide the public with free, irrevocable, and perpetual legal permission to engage in what Wiley (2015) calls the 5R activities:

  1. Retain – the right to make, own, and control copies of materials (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage your own copy)
  2. Reuse – the right to use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)
  3. Revise – the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)
  4. Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)
  5. Redistribute – the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend or post a copy on the internet)

The application of an open license to a digital educational resource eliminates the artificial excludability created by copyright, and returns digital educational resources to their original state as public goods.

Table 2. A More Nuanced Classification of Knowledge and Expressions of Knowledge

Nature of Expression Example Type of Good “Pure” ideas Knowledge of details of yesterday’s weather Public Goods

  Physical expressions of ideas Details of yesterday’s weather described in a traditional newspaper Private Goods Digital expressions of ideas (traditionally copyrighted) Details of yesterday’s weather described online on CNN Club Goods Digital expressions of ideas (openly licensed) Details of yesterday’s weather described online on Wikipedia Public Goods

“Retain” is the fundamental permission of the 5Rs because it enables all the others. For example, if I can’t download my own copy of a resource, I can’t make changes to it. The importance of Retain becomes particularly clear in the context of the emergence of services like Spotify and Netflix at home, and library subscriptions to e-book collections, databases, and journals on campus. Each of these services rents temporary access to books, articles, songs, movies, and other materials without providing users with the possibility of buying a personal copy that they can truly own and control.

Educators, instructional designers, learners, and others must be careful not to confuse freely available resources and OER. Essentially all resources on the internet are freely available – articles at the BBC, New York Times, and National Geographic can all be accessed and read for free online. OER, by contrast, are resources that can be accessed for free and provide educators, instructional designers, learners, and others with the 5R permissions to download a copy, make modifications and improvements, and share those copies freely with others.

Alignment of Educational Resources with the Core Values of Education

Education and traditional copyright are fundamentally at odds with one another. While education is sharing, the purpose of copyright has traditionally been to make sharing illegal unless permissions are secured from a rights holder. The process of securing copyright permissions is an incredibly expensive and time-consuming undertaking. This situation presents a daunting challenge for educators and instructional designers who would like to design instruction that makes use of copyrighted material. If faculty abdicate the design and creation of the educational materials used in their courses to publishers, publishers will use copyright to make those materials artificially excludable, and therefore scarce and expensive, for students.

The process of securing permissions is frequently – and increasingly – impossible. An orphan work is a copyrighted work whose copyright holder cannot be identified or contacted. For example, a photograph that does not indicate its photographer is an orphan work. If the rights holder for a work cannot be contacted, there is no way to acquire the explicit permissions necessary to share a creative work with others.

Thus, traditionally copyrighted educational materials are poorly aligned with education’s core values. While education is sharing, copyright serves to complicate sharing and make it expensive. Education is already sufficiently complex without the added complications of artificial constraints placed on sharing by copyright law. Until recently, there was no widely available alternative to simply accepting and working within the constraints of this complication.

By contrast, open educational resources explicitly permit sharing, as explained by the 5R framework. With open educational resources, there is no need to spend time or other resources securing permissions because each OER is published in a manner that provides everyone – including faculty, instructional designers, and students – with free, perpetual, and irrevocable permission to adapt and share. Consequently, open educational resources are closely aligned with education’s core values and make the process of sharing as inexpensive and easy as possible.

While educators have long relied on copyright exemptions like fair use to occasionally sidestep the complexities and cost of rights clearance, fair use and related arguments made in educational settings typically require the copyrighted work to be used in a very limited context – within a classroom or behind password protection. The necessity of making educational fair uses essentially in secret completely precludes the possibility of open collaboration by faculty or students across the internet. While it is sometimes appropriate to make fair use of copyrighted works without permissions, these uses must always occur in isolation, with every faculty member or student recreating the wheel in their own local context. Traditional copyright fights against the nature of the internet in this context in that it precludes the emergence of the network effects that are the hallmark of many innovations. In other contexts the network effect is described as the “standing on the shoulders of giants” effect, in which people are able to build on the best work done by others before them. OER permit this shoulder standing, while fair uses prohibit you from knowing whether anyone else is standing nearby.

Practical Impacts on Faculty and Students

When faculty choose to adopt OER in place of commercial educational resources, they recognize two major benefits related to the closer alignment of OER with the core values of education. First, OER adoption provides faculty with opportunities to re-professionalize, engaging in skilled activities many faculty have abandoned. Second, OER provide hitherto unknown pedagogical freedom for faculty.

Little by little, and without knowing it, faculty have slowly ceded control over the design and content of their educational materials to publishers. From this perspective, the publishing industry can be seen as responsible for the large-scale de-skilling of faculty by providing them with “easy outs” from engaging in these activities. This works well out particularly well for publishers over the long term, because an entire generation of faculty without these critical skills becomes wholly dependent on instructional materials created, reviewed, selected, and assembled by publishers.

Adopting OER is a completely different experience. Selecting OER does not need to be a professional and intellectual dead end for faculty. Every word, every image, every example, every definition, and every other aspect of OER is open to localization, adaptation, remixing, and improvement by faculty. Faculty might choose to ignore others’ compilations of OER and build their own collection of individual OER from the ground up. On the other end of the spectrum, if a faculty member wants to simply adopt someone else’s collection of OER and use it just like they used their previous commercial textbook, they have that option, too. OER provide faculty with a much greater opportunity to engage in evaluation, selection, curation, improvement, and ownership of the core tools of their trade.

Second, adopting OER instead of traditional textbooks significantly expands the academic freedom of faculty members in terms of pedagogy. There are a wide range of activities and assignments that can be made in the context of OER that simply cannot be made when a traditional textbook has been selected. For example, faculty can assign students to find OER that speak more directly and clearly to them about a course topic than current material, with the promise that the best finds will be incorporated into the official course materials. Students can write their own material, or shoot their own videos, or record their own interviews, etc. , with a similar guarantee. Immediately these activities change from being disposable assignments which students invest little time in and immediately throw away on after grading (like response essays), and are transformed into activities with real value that will be used and valued by their peers, winning students both personal satisfaction and a small amount of fame. Adopting OER instead of commercial materials allows faculty to invite students to become co-producers of knowledge rather than passive recipients. The permission to make that invitation simply does not exist when faculty adopt traditional textbooks.

Students are also impacted by faculty decisions to adopt OER. When every single student in a course has full, no-cost access to all the materials they are assigned to read, watch, and practice with, there is a noticeable impact on student success. The Review Project (Hilton, 2015), an ongoing, online literature review of the impacts of OER adoption, states:

In terms of student and teacher perspective of OER, there were 2,747 students and 847 faculty members whose perceptions were surveyed across the eight studies pertaining to perceptions of OER. In no instance did a majority of students or teachers report that the OER were of inferior quality. Across multiple studies in various settings, students consistently reported that they faced financial difficulties and that OER provided a financial benefit to them. A general finding seems to be that roughly half of teachers and students find OER to be comparable to traditional resources, a sizeable minority believe they are superior, and a smaller minority find them inferior.

In total, 7,779 students have utilized OER materials across the ten studies that attempted to measure results pertaining to student efficacy. While causality was not claimed by any researcher, the use of OER was sometimes correlated with higher test scores, lower failure, or withdrawal rates. None of the nine studies that measured efficacy had results in which students who utilized OER performed worse than their peers who used traditional textbooks.

Even if the use of OER materials do not significantly increase student learning outcomes, this is a very important finding. Given that (1) students and teachers generally find OER to be as good or better than traditional textbooks, and (2) students do not perform worse when utilizing OER, then (3) students, parents and taxpayers stand to save literally billions of dollars without any negative impact on learning through the adoption of OER.

Colleges and universities are relying more and more heavily on OER as evidenced by initiatives like Virginia’s Zx23, in which 23 Virginia colleges have committed to replace commercial textbooks with OER in all the courses necessary to complete at least one degree program on their campus (Sebastian, 2015). As OER are adopted more widely it will be critically important for instructional designers, instructional technologists, educational researchers, and others to understand what they are, where they come from, and why they matter.

Discussion Questions
  1. The relationship between supply and demand is foundational to classical economics. Traditionally publishers have used copyright to make digital educational resources artificially excludable, and consequently artificially scarce, in order to maintain high prices for their products. What happens to the economics of educational publishing in a world where the supply of OER is infinite (because they are public goods)? What is the role of instructional designers in this future? What happens to the economics of education more broadly in a world where the supply of educational resources is infinite?
  1. Given the existence of a large body of freely available OER that research indicates are at least equal in effectiveness to traditional educational resources, does requiring students to purchase a $150 or $250 textbook for a course raise important ethical or moral issues? If so, what is the relationship between faculty’s academic freedom to select any course materials they desire and these ethical or moral considerations? Should institutions have policies regarding these issues in the future? If so, what would an appropriate policy look like?
  1. The restrictions placed on the behavior of faculty and instructional designers are as ubiquitous as the influence of gravity in our daily lives. Our intuitions about what is possible and what should not even be considered in our design practice are shaped by what we know about “how the world works” with regard to copyright. When you strip away the constraints of copyright, as open educational resources do, what new kinds of educational practice, instructional design, and assessment strategies, and pedagogies become possible? How can we encourage people to escape the historical constraints of copyright to think more expansively in a world of OER?
References

Creative Commons (2015). The State of the Commons. Retrieved from https://stateof.creativecommons.org/

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.

Hilton, J. (2015). The Review Project. Retrieved from http://openedgroup.org/review/

Jefferson, T. (1813). Thomas Jefferson to Isaac McPherson. Retrieved from http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_8s12.html

Lessig, L. (2008). Remix. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Sebastian, R. (2015). Zx23 Project. Retrieved from http://edtech.vccs.edu/z-x-23-project/

Wiley, D. (2015). Defining the Open in Open Content. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/definition/

French Friday : App Moodle Mobile 3.2

Moodle News - 13 Enero, 2017 - 21:00
Je ne sais pas si il vous utilisez l’app Moodle mobile ? Moi je ne peux plus m’en passer ! Aujourd’hui j’aimerais vous parler de cette app en espérant vous donner envie de vous servir. Cette...

Clemson U, Carnegie Mellon to Develop Robots for Advanced Manufacturing

Campus Technology - 13 Enero, 2017 - 19:30
Researchers at Clemson University (CU) are collaborating with a robotics institute affiliated with Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to develop next-generation robots for advanced manufacturing across the automotive, aerospace, electronics and textile industries. CU will also help train the workers who will operate the robots, as part of a $253 million plan to fill roughly 510,000 jobs in manufacturing by 2025.

Established education providers v new contenders

OLDaily - 13 Enero, 2017 - 16:58


Unattributed, The Economist, Jan 13, 2017

This article makes the point that "the MOOCs are on to something." Why? Because they show that education at scale can be done quickly and cheaply. They may show this, but even more to the point, they show that there a hige demand for free or low-cost learning. But I want to point you to a piece of pure fiction in this article. Look at the graph, which shows the number of MOOC users rising exponentially. At the end of the graph, and without any data to justify it, it levels off over the year 2017. Why change the direction of the line like that? (The image is credited to Class Central but Class Central  doesn't appear to have this image anywhere on their site). Via Helge Scherlund.

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Categorías: General

Watch 100 Randomly Ticking Metronomes Achieve Synchronicity

OLDaily - 13 Enero, 2017 - 16:58


Dan Colman, Open Culture, Jan 13, 2017

I've shown smaller versions of the metronome phenomenon before, but this version with 100 separate and independent metronomes is spectacular. It's an illustration of synchronicity, the idea that autonomous but connected entities can self-organize. What makes synchronicity possible is the medium of connection, in this case the platform holding the metronomes, which responds in reaction to their movement. Notice that there is never anything like a signal that "we must synchronize"; each metronome exerts an independent and meaningless push against the platform as a consequence of its ticking to its own tune.

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What The Moodle Users Association Is, Does And Will In 2017

Moodle News - 13 Enero, 2017 - 14:34
Moodle.com, the official Moodle blog, recently shared highlights of a chat with freshly appointed MUA Chair for 2017, Steve Powell. The subject: 2017. The Moodle Users Association Inc. is an entity...

Hack Education Weekly News

Hack Education - 13 Enero, 2017 - 08:01
Education Politics

Coming at you from the “fashion” section of The New York Times, a profile on Peter Thiel: “Peter Thiel, Trump’s Tech Pal, Explains Himself.” Highlights include his thoughts on Star Wars, corruption, and sex. OK, maybe “highlights” is the wrong word.

Silicon Valley Takes a Right Turn,” according to an op-ed in The New York Times. But frankly, it’s always leaned to the right.

Via WaPo’s Valerie Strauss: “Yes, Bill Gates really compared Donald Trump to JFK – and said Trump could help education.”

Via The New York Daily News: “A conservative Arizona lawmaker, Rep. Bob Thorpe, is proposing a far-reaching law in Arizona, House Bill 2120, banning virtually every college event, activity or course which discusses social justice, skin privilege, or racial equality. Violating the law would allow the state of Arizona to levy multimillion-dollar fines and penalties against universities – removing at least 10% of their state aid.”

Via Inside Higher Ed: “Lawmakers in two states this week introduced legislation that would eliminate tenure for public college and university professors. A bill in Missouri would end tenure for all new faculty hires starting in 2018 and require more student access to information about the job market for majors. Legislation in Iowa would end tenure even for those who already have it.” (“If colleges keep killing academic freedom, civilization will die, too,” says Judge José A. Cabranes in a WaPo op-ed. So that’s fun.)

Via Newsweek: “Texas Among States With Anti-Transgender ‘Bathroom Bills’ on the Horizon.”

Via Boston.gov: “Mayor Walsh launches tuition-free community college for BPS graduates.” (BPS equals Boston Public Schools.)

“Edushyster” Jennifer Berkshire has another profile of Betsy DeVos, Trump’s nominee for Secretary of Education.

Via The New York Times: “Betsy DeVos, Trump’s Education Pick, Plays Hardball With Her Wealth.”

DeVos’s confirmation hearing was delayed, in part because of an incomplete ethics review.

Via The New York Times: “Trump’s Pick for Education Could Face Unusually Stiff Resistance.”

Elsewhere in Trumplandia: “Columbia University has declined to comment on recent reports that Monica Crowley, an appointee of President-elect Donald J. Trump, plagiarized portions of her 2000 Ph.D. dissertation at the university,” The Chronicle of Higher Education reports.

Via Buzzfeed: “Trump Moves To Challenge Vaccine Science.”

The Chronicle of Higher Education on news from the Department of Labor: “New Federal Guidance Is Hailed as Helping Adjuncts Collect Unemployment.”

The Thurgood Marshall College Fund, a national group supporting public and private HBCUs, announced a $25.6 million gift from the Charles Koch Foundation and Koch Industries, a well-known opponent of government spending on things like public education (among other things). More via Inside Higher Ed.

The Department of Education has released a “Higher Education Supplement to the National Education Technology Plan,” just in the nick of time I guess. More on the report via Edsurge.

Via Inside Higher Ed: “The Department of Education has released data showing there were 539 institutions placed on heightened cash monitoring as of Dec. 1, meaning they are subject to greater financial oversight than other institutions participating in federal aid programs.”

Via The Guardian: “Peers have defeated controversial government reforms of higher education that would have made it easier for new profit-making colleges to award degrees and become universities.” (Peers are members of the House of Lords for those not up-to-date on UK government titles.) EDITED TO ADD: Apparently, The Guardian article is not quite right. "Defeated" is too strong a word here. Rather, an amendment has been added to define "university," something that is a blow to this particular piece of legislation.

More about the politics of education data – particularly regarding undocumented students – in the data and surveillance section below. More news on the Department of Education, student loans, and for-profit higher ed in the for-profit higher ed section below.

Education in the Courts

Via NPR: “Supreme Court Considers How Schools Support Students With Disabilities.” More via The New York Times. Disability rights journalist David Perry also weighs in.

Via The Washington Post: “Teachers sue student loan servicer for converting their grants to loans.”

Via The Huffington Post: “Native American Students Sue The U.S. Government Over Dismal Education.”

Via McClatchy DC: “Forced to watch child porn for their job, Microsoft employees developed PTSD, they say.” They’re suing the company.

Online Education and the Once and Future “MOOC”

edX is offering an online master’s degree with Georgia Tech: an OMS (online master’s in science) in Analytics.

edX has partnered with the World Bank Group.

The Economist onThe Return of the MOOC.” As The Dead Kennedys would say,

MOOC’s not dead It just deserves to die When it becomes another stale cartoon A close-minded, self-centered social club Ideas don’t matter It’s who you know If the MOOC’s gotten boring It’s because of the people who want everyone to sound the same Who drive the bright people out of our so-called scene Till all that’s left is a meaningless fad

Via Zion Market Research: “Massive Open Online Course Market: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecasts 2016-2024.” Price tag for the report: $3599.

“ The growth of online learning: How universities must adjust to the new norm” is sponsored content on Education Dive.

Via Salon: “Noam Chomsky: You can’t educate yourself by looking things up online.”

Harvard/MIT Report Analyzes 4 Years of MOOC Data,” Campus Technology reports. More via Inside Higher Ed.

Via Mindwire Consulting’s Phil Hill: “The Intended Consequences of California’s Online Education Initiative.”

The “New” For-Profit Higher Ed

Via Buzzfeed: “Hundreds Of College Programs Could Be Shut Down For Breaking Student Debt Rules.” “Over 800 Programs Fail Education Dept.’s Gainful-Employment Rule,” The Chronicle of Higher Education reports. More via Bloomberg. Here’s the gainful employment data from the Department of Education itself. A reaction from Robert Kelchen. Kevin Carey also has thoughts about Harvard's appearance on the "predatory program" list.

From the press release: “The U.S. Department of Education (ED) announced today plans to grant borrower defense relief for federal student loan borrowers who attended the now-defunct American Career Institute (ACI) in Massachusetts.” More via Inside Higher Ed.

Race, student debt, and for-profit graduate schools” – a report from The Brookings Institution.

Also via The Brookings Institution: “How much do for-profit colleges rely on federal funds?”

Via the ABA Journal: “Charlotte School of Law students reportedly will receive spring loan money.”

More on accreditation of for-profits in the accreditation section below.

Meanwhile on Campus…

The Chronicle of Higher Education reports on more university mergers in Georgia: “Armstrong State University, in Savannah, and Georgia Southern University, in Statesboro, will merge under the Georgia Southern name, bringing the total number of students at the university to around 27,000. And Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College, in Tifton, will be merged with Bainbridge State College. Both campuses will use the Abraham Baldwin name and have a total of about 6,000 students.”

Via The Mercury News: “In Apple’s backyard, iPads ignite furor in schools.” Parents in the affluent school district are pushing back on the mandate that middle schoolers use iPads.

Via Edsurge: “Mountain View District Cuts Digital Program in Half After Parent Backlash.” The program: Teach to One.

(Fascinating how affluent parents in the shadow of Google and Apple HQs respond to ed-tech, no?)

“The University of California, San Francisco, has announced a $500 million grant from the Helen Diller Foundation, one of the largest gifts ever to American higher education,” Inside Higher Ed reports.

Via NPR: “Activists Fear Reversal Of Strict Rules On Campus Sexual Assault.”

Via Infodocket: “University of Delaware Library Joins Open Textbook Network.”

Accreditation and Certification

Via Inside Higher Ed: “ACICS-Accredited Colleges Meet Federal Deadline.” That is, they met the deadline to maintain their financial aid eligibility for the next 18 months while they look for a new accreditor.

“The ‘poor man’s MBA’ can boost salaries by 20%,” says CNN in a puff piece about LinkedIn, Lynda.com, and project management certificates.

Go, School Sports Team!

Via The New York Times: “Clemson Upsets Alabama to Win the College Football Championship.” Coach Dabo Swinney thanked God for taking such good care of the Tigers – which probably explains why the rest of the world has gone to shit this football season.

Via The Denver Post: “ New pro football league aims to be a college alternative for players.”

Via the AP: “Jerry Sandusky sex-abuse scandal has cost Penn State nearly a quarter-billion dollars.”

Via The Undefeated: “Spending gap for football players vs. nonathletes by bowl-eligible schools is enormous.”

Via The Washington Post: “College athletic directors bring gala business to Trump International Hotel.”

From the HR Department

Via The LA Times: “How the University of California exploited a visa loophole to move tech jobs to India.”

Via CNBC: “Uber’s David Plouffe to join Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.” Before joining Uber, Plouffe was President Obama’s campaign manager. Let’s keep an eye on Zuck’s political aspirations.

Upgrades and Downgrades

App.net is shutting down. The social media platform had raised $2.5 million from Andreessen Horowitz and others.

Via Techcrunch: “Nickelodeon gets into e-books with new reading app for kids, Nick Jr. Books.”

Google’s Toontastic storytelling app for kids goes 3D,” says Techcrunch. (Well, you’re still moving your cartoons around in a two-dimensional space, but it’s a great headline.)

Google boasts that “New Google Classroom features make it easier to learn, teach, manage and build” – that is, by adding notifications and metrics. Good god, the bar is low, isn’t it. More on the Classroom API via the G Suite Developers Blog. (LOL. “G Suite.”)

Via the ALA press release: “Equipping librarians to code: ALA, Google launch ready to code university pilot program.” “This work will culminate in graduate level course models that equip MLIS students to deliver coding programs through public and school libraries and foster computational thinking skills among the nation’s youth.”

Nothing says “progressive education” like shilling for Unilever.

Education Week has a Q&A with Stanford professor Larry Cuban on personalized learning and progressive education.

Robots and Other (Ed-Tech) Science Fiction

I’m adding this subsection to the Hack Education Weekly News this year, as I am fascinated by the narratives surrounding artificial intelligence and robots – if not the “fake news” of the (ed-) tech sector, certainly some of the most hyped and unsubstantiated crap you’ll read…

Via Edsurge: “What Makes a Smart Course ‘Smart’?” I believe the answer is “adding the adjective ‘smart’ to your press release or headline.”

Via Geekwire: “New $27 million fund backs research into artificial intelligence for the public interest.” The money comes from LinkedIn co-founder Reid Hoffman, the Omidyar Network, the Knight Foundation, and others.

Via Edsurge: “​Are False Connections with AI Robots Putting Your Student’s Emotional Health at Risk?”

Via The New York Times: “Robots Will Take Jobs, but Not as Fast as Some Fear, New Report Says.”

Via Campus Technology: “Carnegie Mellon AI Ups the Ante in 20-Day Poker Fest.”

A.I. Is the New T.A. in the Classroom” – by Rose Luckin and Wayne Holmes and sponsored by Pearson, of course.

“Ten Questions about AIfrom Roger Schank, who remains the best person to follow on puncturing the AI hype both in and out of the classroom.

A chatbot startup received funding – more details in the business of ed-tech section below.

Venture Capital and the Business of Ed-Tech

Sallie Mae’s stock has soared since the election,” notes Rohit Chopra. For-profit higher and student loan companies. The future of ed-tech.

Housinganywhere.com has raised $5.27 million in funding from HENQ Invest and Real Web. The student housing startup has raised $6.27 million total.

Unacademy has raised $4.5 million in Series A funding from Blume Ventures, Nexus Venture Partners, Ananth Narayanan, Binny Bansal, Girish Mathrubootham, Kunal Shah, Sachin Bansal, Sandeep Tandon, Stanford Angels and Entrepreneurs, Tashish Tulsian, Tracxn Labs, Vijay Shekhar Sharma, and Waterbridge Ventures. The online education platform has raised $6 million total.

AdmitHub has raised $2.95 million in seed funding from Reach Capital, Relay Ventures, Bisk Ventures , Charlie Cheever, Chris Gabrieli, FundersClub, Kevin Morgan, The Yard Ventures, and University Ventures. According to Edsurge, AdmitHub is “creating conversational artificial intelligence (AI) to guide students to and through college.” It’s raised $3.68 million total.

ClassWallet has raised an undisclosed amount of funding from Brentwood Associates.

“Blended learning” company Learntron has raised an undisclosed amount of funding from Kae Capital.

Via Techcrunch: “Salesforce’s Marc Benioff joins Valley notables backing Gaza’s first ever coding academy.” The funding is part of a crowdfunding campaign, also backed by Paul Graham, Brad Feld, Dave McClure, Fadi Ghandour, Samih Toukan, the Skoll Foundation, and Freada Kapor Klein.

Via Edsurge: “Curriculum Associates to Be Owned by Iowa State University – For Now.”

Via Edsurge: “Rethink Education Re-Ups Commitment to Edtech With $107.5 Million Fund.”

Privacy, Surveillance, and Information Security

Via NPR: “The Higher Ed Learning Revolution: Tracking Each Student’s Every Move.”

The LA Times reports that Los Angeles Valley College has paid $28,000 in Bitcoin to ransomware hackers.

Via Quartz: “A lawyer rewrote Instagram’s privacy policy so kids and parents can have a meaningful talk about privacy.”

Via The Register: “TV anchor says live on-air ‘Alexa, order me a dollhouse’ – guess what happens next.”

Via The New York Times: “N.S.A. Gets More Latitude to Share Intercepted Communications.”

Via Education Week: “Trump’s Anti-Immigration Rhetoric Fuels Data Concerns.”

Data and “Research”

“American higher ed enrollment declines, again,” says Bryan Alexander, drawing on data from the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. Some of this come from the “collapse” – we wish, right? – of for-profit higher ed.

Also via Bryan Alexander: “How academia adjunctified faculty and mainstreamed the queen sacrifice.”

Still more from Bryan Alexander: “The next 15 years of high school graduates.”

Via Medical Xpress: “Parents’ presence when TV viewing with child affects learning ability.”

It’s always worth noting the scholars that Rick Hess does not see when he calculates his “RHSU Edu-Scholar Public Influence Rankings.” Not Tressie McMillan Cottom, for example.

Inside Higher Ed covers a new study, published in Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Ed comparing RateMyProfessors and institutional evaluations: :Study of millions of online ratings of professors suggests scores vary with an instructor’s gender, discipline and perceived ‘easiness.’"

Via The New York Times: “For Young Entrepreneurs, College Debts Can Snuff Out Start-Up Hopes.” (Let’s add that ditching the ACA will also damage these hopes.)

Via teachonline.ca: “Directory of Vendors of Online Learning Products and Services.” (I’d be curious in how this 2500 entry database compares with Edsurge’s.)

Via EdTech Magazine: “How Learning Analytics Can Help Inform K–12 Decisions.”

Via The Hechinger Report: “School of Me: Letting students study what they want, when they want is the latest education trend.” Not entirely what they want, of course. Let’s be clear.

Via Inside Higher Ed: “Students at for-profit institutions achieve learning results that are similar to those of students who attend comparable nonprofit colleges, according to a new study by the Council for Aid to Education. The study was funded by the for-profits that participated in the research.” (And the methodology is pretty LOL.)

Via The New York Times: “Sticker Shock, and Maybe Nausea, Hamper Sales of Virtual Reality Gear.” But I’m sure ed-tech evangelists still believe VR is the future of education.

Via Mark Guzdial: “Computer Science added to US Dept of Ed Civil Rights Data Collection.” (As long as the Department of Education still collects this data, of course.)

“​How Should We Measure the Impact of Makerspaces?” is a depressing, but probably inevitable question posed by Edsurge.

US News & World Report ranks things.

More research on MOOCs in the MOOC section above. More research on for-profit higher ed in the for-profit higher ed section above.

Icon credits: The Noun Project

Diversity is hard

OLDaily - 13 Enero, 2017 - 04:19


Jenny Mackness, Jan 12, 2017

Nice discussion of some of the recent  concerns raised by danah boyd (covered in OLDaily here). One of the core arguments revolves around diversity. Diversity is hard, notes Jenny Mackness, because of our tendency to break into self-reinforcing homogeneous groups. Citing  Paul Cilliers she notes "An abundance of difference is not a convenience, it is a necessity. Complex systems cannot be what they are without it, and we cannot understand them without the making of profuse distinctions." She notes, "Respect for differences and an understanding of diversity is a key ethical rule for complex systems." I don't see this so much as an ethical principle as I do it as an epistemic principle.

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How Augmented Reality Enables Conceptual Understanding of Challenging Science Content

OLDaily - 13 Enero, 2017 - 04:19


Susan Yoon, Emma Anderson, Joyce Lin, Karen Elinich, Educational Technology & Society, Jan 12, 2017

We're on the verge of getting a deluge of papers like this: "we hypothesize that students acquire a more accurate understanding of the Bernoulli’ s principle, a challenging science concept, by interacting with an augmented reality (AR) device." There's nothing wrong with that; we need to know whether games, virtual reality, augmented reality, etc., actually improve the user's understanding. But there's a caveat: if the study is going to generalize (as this one does) then it should have a large number of subjects. 58 students is not a lot of subjects (and dividing them by skin colour is utterly pointless). What I did like about the paper was the discussion of exactly how students get the Bernoulli principle wrong and how AR can address that. As a theoretical paper this is pretty interesting.

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Are They Thinking Differently: A Cross-Cultural Study on the Relationship of Thinking Styles and Emerging Roles in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

OLDaily - 13 Enero, 2017 - 04:19


Xiaoqing Gu, Huawen Wang, Jon Mason, Educational Technology & Society, Jan 12, 2017

It's often said that people from different cultures collaborate differently. But why? This paper examines the possibility that different thinking styles result in different collaboration styles. The paper takes as its point of departure Sternberg's 1990 "cultural construct is introduced as 'mental self-government' to highlight the relationship between individual abilities and preferences and its effect on teaching and learning." Using small samples (too small, really) of students from China and the United States, the authors found that "Chinese students tend toward adopting roles of arguer, questioner and challenger, which are consistent with the thinking style of the oligarchic. By contrast, American students actively assume roles of supporter, starter, and timer, and are characterized as outgoing, enthusiastic, and friendly to group members, which are consistent with judicial, liberal, and hierarchical thinking skills."

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John Carroll U Streamlines Campus Workflows With OnBase

Campus Technology - 12 Enero, 2017 - 22:45
John Carroll University has deployed a campuswide enterprise information platform to support student engagement, data-informed decision-making and simplified workflows.

Harvard/MIT Report Analyzes 4 Years of MOOC Data

Campus Technology - 12 Enero, 2017 - 21:48
Two of the brains behind the institutions' edX programs have released results of a joint research project that mined the data generated through four years of MOOC activity.

Carnegie Mellon AI Ups the Ante in 20-Day Poker Fest

Campus Technology - 12 Enero, 2017 - 20:20
So far, in the poker tournament being heralded as "Brains Versus Artificial Intelligence: Upping the Ante," AI has collected more chips.

UNC Asheville Makerspace Brings Together Engineering, Art, Computer Science

Campus Technology - 12 Enero, 2017 - 20:00
The University of North Carolina at Asheville (UNC Asheville) last month opened a new makerspace that fosters interdisciplinary collaboration among students, encouraging engineers, artists and entrepreneurs to work alongside each other as well as faculty and staff experts.

8 Lessons Learned From Open Source Development

Campus Technology - 12 Enero, 2017 - 18:44
When Harvard kicked off OpenScholar six years ago, little did it realize the impact the website creation project would have on the university — and the academic world at large.

Cengage Intros OER Tool

Campus Technology - 12 Enero, 2017 - 18:36
Cengage is launching a new product that blends open educational resources with the company's portfolio of learning content.

The Learning Analytics Roadmap: Comparing Paths And ‘Completing The Loop’ [LAR Series #8]

Moodle News - 12 Enero, 2017 - 17:32
Our series on The Learning Analytics Roadmap endeavors to provide a set of practical thinking posts to help you start an analytics-based practice. While analytics are not new in learning, the effort...

Preparing Graduates for Future Knowledge Practices

OLDaily - 12 Enero, 2017 - 16:11


Thomas Carey, Inside Higher Ed, Jan 12, 2017

One of my earlier experiences was teaching critical thinking at the University of Alberta Hospital School of Nursing. So it has long been evident in nursing schools that graduates need to have the capacity to reflect on practices and to adapt to changing circumstances. Tom Carey suggests the same framework could be applied to the teaching profession itself (and I agree). "Ultimately, we’ ll have to tackle the need for faculty members – and our other educators – to be effective models as ‘ critical friends’ of changes in workplace practices." Image: Nurse Killam.

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