agregador de noticias

El paréntesis escolar

Cuaderno de campo - 20 Abril, 2015 - 16:02
    Aunque muchos piensen que hay escuela desde que hay historia, la institución es reciente, producto y productora a la vez de la modernidad. Antes fue una excepción: para las clases acomodadas de las ciudades en un mundo rural y para las elites burocráticas y hierocráticas en un mundo de trabajo manual. Sólo con la modernidad, es decir, con la reforma protestante, el Estado-nación, la fábrica, el mercado, la urbanización, la codificación... llega la necesidad y la oportunidad de la escuela.     Se puede buscar tantos antecedentes y precedentes como se quiera, pero, si hay que datar el despegue de la escuela de masas, parece razonable fijarse en el surgimiento de la common school impulsada por Horace Mann (inspirado por Prusia) en Massachusetts, pronto generalizada a la Unión (y que inspirará a su vez a Giner de los Ríos, entre otros) y en la école unique francesa, promovida por Ferry, Buisson y Durkheim; es decir, entre las décadas de los cincuenta y los ochenta del siglo XIX.    Hasta entonces la infancia aprendía, incluso era educada, pero raramente escolarizada ni, por tanto, enseñada. En ese dicho africano según el cual hace falta una aldea para educar a un niño, que tanto gusta a los docentes cuando demandan, con razón, apoyo, pocos reparan en que para nada se menciona a la escuela. La escolarización representa un cambio drástico respecto a toda la historia anterior de socialización familiar, aprendizaje en el trabajo, moralización religiosa, etc., cambio que consiste en acotar y especificar el espacio, el tiempo, el contenido, el método, la evaluación y los agentes del aprendizaje (ahora enseñanza) en ese conjunto de dimensiones y relaciones que llamamos escuela, o sistema educativo. 
    Numerosos signos anuncian que ese monopolio ha llegado a su fin. Seguramente no será muy distinto de lo que está sucediendo con la prensa y los medios de difusión (mal llamados de comunicación), que han perdido el monopolio de la información, con la publicidad, con la política, etc. Si la mayor parte de la enseñanza no fuera obligatoria, si no cumpliera además la importante función de custodiar a niños y adolescentes, si no fuese que estos aceptan e incluso quieren ir a la escuela porque allí están sus pares sin alternativa a la vista, o si la universidad no conservase todavía el monopolio de títulos que son la llave para las profesiones, la crisis del sistema educativo estaría al menos tan avanzada como la de los medios, la publicidad o las discográficas.
    El problema, en el fondo, es que el aprendizaje necesita cada vez menos de la enseñanza, o más en concreto de la escuela. Puede ser útil, pero ya no es imprescindible. O puede ser imprescindible por otros motivos (como la custodia o la mera socialización), pero ya no para el aprendizaje. Puede, en fin, que la concentración de aprendizaje y educación en la escuela resulte, a la postre, un mero paréntesis, es decir, una etapa histórica con un principio y con un fin. Un indicio de ello podría ser el peso relativo de enseñanza y aprendizaje en las preocupaciones sociales. El ngrama que acompaña a este texto sugiere precisamente eso a través de de un indicador indirecto pero relevante como es el de los títulos de libros publicados en los últimos doscientos años. Al principio era el aprendizaje; durante un tiempo, que viene a coincidir con el periodo halciónico de la escuela que discurre del surgimiento de los grandes sistemas de masas a la democratización del acceso, quedó subordinado a la enseñanza; ahora, en un proceso que arrancaría con los movimientos críticos de los sesenta y estalla con el desarrollo de las tecnologías y de las redes, se libera de nuevo. Y así se cierra el paréntesis.
Categorías: General

California's Online Education Initiative Pushes Forward on PD, Student Readiness

Campus Technology - 20 Abril, 2015 - 15:33
The California Community College Online Education Initiative (OEI), the state-sponsored project that aims to dramatically increase the number of students who earn associate degrees and transfer to four-year colleges, has come a long way since it was announced in the fall of 2013, according to the OEI's executive director, Patricia James.

New Quiz Feature in Moodle 2.9: item dependencies

Moodle News - 20 Abril, 2015 - 14:28
Tim Hunt has published a quick discussion on a new feature coming to Moodle 2.9 which provides additional settings to control how quizzes display their questions to students. The particular settings...

2U Learning Platform Update: Removal of Moodle, addition of accessibility options

e-Literate - 20 Abril, 2015 - 14:25

By Phil HillMore Posts (305)

2U has now been a public company for over a year, and that had what is easily the most successful education IPO in recent history. Shares have almost doubled from $13.00 at IPO to $25.50 last week. At the same time, there is a swirl of news around their new partner Yale and the Physician Assistant’s program – first the announcement of program from one of the elite of elite schools, second the news that accreditation approval for the new program is not going to be as easy as hoped.

While both aspects are newsworthy, I’d like to dive deeper into their infrastructure and learning platforms. The company is far from complacent, as they continue to make significant changes.

One emerging trend that both Michael and I have been covering is the growing idea that there are real benefits to be gained when pedagogy and platform are developed in parallel. From Michael’s intro to the Post-LMS series:

Reading Phil’s multiple reviews of Competency-Based Education (CBE) “LMSs”, one of the implications that jumps out at me is that we see a much more rapid and coherent progression of learning platform designs if you start with a particular pedagogical approach in mind. CBE is loosely tied to family of pedagogical methods, perhaps the most important of which at the moment is mastery learning. In contrast, questions about why general LMSs aren’t “better” beg the question, “Better for what?” Since conversations of LMS design are usually divorced from conversations of learning design, we end up pretending that the foundational design assumptions in an LMS are pedagogically neutral when they are actually assumptions based on traditional lecture/test pedagogy. I don’t know what a “better” LMS looks like, but I am starting to get a sense of what an LMS that is better for CBE looks like. In some ways, the relationship between platform and pedagogy is similar to the relationship former Apple luminary Alan Kay claimed between software and hardware: “People who are really serious about software should make their own hardware.” It’s hard to separate serious digital learning design from digital learning platform design (or, for that matter, from physical classroom design). The advances in CBE platforms are a case in point.

2U is following the same concept. Their pedagogy is based on small discussion sections (they boast an average class size of ~11 students) within masters level programs, combining synchronous discussions using a Brady Bunch approach.

They also use a Bi-directional Learning Tool (BLT). The following video references the ill-fated Semester Online program, but the tool applies to all their customers.

2U’s approach also adds in custom-developed video segments that act as case studies.

Learning Platform Keeps Connect, Removes Moodle

Initially 2U patched together Moodle as an LMS and Adobe Connect as web conferencing for the video sessions, developing custom tools and applications to tie it all together. In additional to the learning platforms used within the courses, 2U also developed custom enrollment projections, marketing, support and application services, but in this post I’m going to focus on the learning components.

In an interview with James Kenigsberg, CTO, and Rob Cohen, President & COO, they described the rationale for the recent changes as architectural in nature – moving to a more modular approach and improving reliability. James and Rob said that their learning platforms are absolutely a pairing of technology and pedagogy. In their term, agnostic platforms don’t accomplish much.

James described their origins of using Moodle with belief that it’s “OK to start with a bowl of spaghetti code if you understand what you want”, and that this is their second refactoring of code in the past six years. They had already heavily customized the Moodle code, but now 2U will have all Moodle components out of the platform by the end of CY 2015. In their description Moodle was great to start with as the base, but now they need a different approach.

2U relies heavily on Adobe Connect, with access to video tools and rooms available throughout the overall learning platform. The rationale for Adobe Connect (vs. Blackboard Collaborate, for example) in that Connect provides a persistent “room” for each faculty member, allowing them to customize, add their own content & quizzes, setup of polls, and general configuration[1]. This room is then available to them through their courses. Other tools tend to have separate meeting instances, such that the content and configuration and setup but no longer available after the meeting. For general configuration of the room, faculty members using 2U’s platform can make choices such as only allowing students to speak in virtual room as they raise their hand vs. initiating everyone to talk on unmute.

For the technology stack, 2U is based on Amazon Web Services (AWS) with files saved to Amazon’s S3 file system. The BLT is built on Angular JS.

Accessibility

2U has also taken advantage of the combined platform + pedagogy approach to make some improvements in accessibility as well. For this area, the benefit is more from combining platform and content than pure pedagogy, however.

For sight-impaired students, there is already compatibility with screen readers such as JAWS, but there is a new audio-overlay feature that is interesting. For the case study videos, 2U enables an option for students to hear a narrated audio track in parallel to the recorded video’s playback. For example, in this video from the social work program at USC, the Abby character is talking to a social worker. The audio track option adds descriptions to give the video context for sight-impaired, such as:

Later, Abby rushes into Carol’s office. [dialogue] Abby sits down. [dialogue]

During one transition, Abby describes her memories from childhood, and the audio overlay describes.

In a flashback, ten year old Abby lies across her bed doing homework. Fran looks in. [dialogue] Abby sits up and gathers her books. [dialogue]

This tight integration works because the same people working on the platform are also working on the course material.

For hearing-impaired students, 2U has added two different transcript capabilities. One choice is having full transcript below video[2].

Another choice is to overlay the transcript as in closed-caption style.

As there are more efforts to create online courses and programs, the topic of accessibility is becoming more important. Just this month, edX settled with the Department of Justice while there are lawsuits against Harvard and MIT for their usage of the platform.

EdX, an online learning platform that Harvard co-founded with MIT in 2012, entered into a settlement agreement with the Department of Justice on Thursday and will address alleged violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act. That settlement could come to bear on a separate but similar lawsuit against Harvard that revolves around issues of accessibility online.

Namely, the edX settlement will require the platform to become accessible for people with disabilities—including those who are deaf or visually impaired. [snip]

The settlement comes as the National Association of the Deaf sues Harvard and MIT for allegedly discriminating against the deaf and hard of hearing by not providing online captioning both for the courses they offer through edX and the rest of their online content. The private lawsuit, filed in February, accuses the University of violating both the American with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act, which requires that educational institutions that receive federal funding provide equal access to disabled individuals. Legal experts have said that the suits against Harvard and MIT has merit.

This challenge of supporting students with disabilities within online courses has been a difficult one to solve, particularly as real solutions require both the platform to have generic capabilities, the content (often created by individual faculty on their own prerogative) to follow appropriate guidelines, and for the addition of transcripts / captions and audio.

2U has the benefit of being directly involved in all three areas and by having their learning platforms designed and customized for their specific pedagogical approach.

Standing Apart in Crowded Market

2U’s approach is unique in the crowded market of Online Service Providers, or “enablers”. 2U is vertically integrated and focused on niche programs – high-tuition masters programs at elite institutions. Most of the competition – Pearson EmbaNet, Wiley Deltak, LearningHouse, Academic Partnerships, etc – are going in different directions that include broad offerings (masters, bachelors, broad range of pedagogy).

I was a little late in covering 2U, largely because of my discomfort with two interdependent aspects of their business:

Furthermore, this vertically-integrated company goes against much of the movement towards interoperability and breaking down walled gardens. But the company is growing and seems to be quite successful, and I do like the strong focus on academic quality and student support. It is worth understanding how this tight combination of platform and pedagogy within the company plays out.

  1. Note: I believe that Bb Collaborate has an option for persistent faculty sessions, but the core design is based on events.
  2. In both cases I’m showing the mouse hover to also show the platform selection tool.

The post 2U Learning Platform Update: Removal of Moodle, addition of accessibility options appeared first on e-Literate.

Resetting the Student Attention Clock

Campus Technology - 20 Abril, 2015 - 14:00
The length of time an average university student could concentrate on a task without becoming distracted back in 1973, according to a survey published at the time, was between 10 and 20 minutes. A 2006 survey by Diana Oblinger, current president of Educause, determined that the average student attention span had shrunk to around seven minutes.

Encendre i apagar 2 LED de manera alternativa

Competència TIC - 20 Abril, 2015 - 09:20
PRÀCTICAProposta de treballProgramar amb Bitbloq la nostra placa Arduino per encendre i apagar dos LED de manera alternativa.



Material necessari
  • Placa Arduino o compatible
  • 2 LED
  • Cable USB
Passos a seguir
  • Connectar la placa Arduino a l'ordinador amb el cable USB
  • Com que el LED és un component digital (amb 2 estats possibles: encès o apagat), cal connectar-los als pins digitals de la placa
  • Dissenyar un programa amb bitbloq 
  • Verificar el programa, carregar-lo a la placa i comprovar el seu funcionament
Entorn de programació
Captura de pantalla del projecte Bitbloq

Detall dels blocs de codi

    Categorías: General

    Los 13 mejores vídeos de ciencia hechos por alumnos

    El proyecto "Guiones para la ciencia" de la UEX nos ofrece vídeos en los que alumnos de todos los niveles educativos realizan representaciones teatrales destinadas a divulgar conocimientos científicos.

    Historias de amor, fábulas escenificadas, recreaciones biográficas y hasta la propia Angela Merkel han sido utilizadas por los estudiantes para explicar aspectos como el funcionamiento del universo, la estructura del átomo o los estados de la materia.

    La ciencia se hace teatro gracias a profesores y alumnos. Guiones para la ciencia nos ofrece una colección de recursos y muchas ideas para desarrollar proyectos de aprendizaje y otras actividades en el aula. Una iniciativa del Servicio de Difusión de la Cultura Científica de la UEx, a través de la Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, FECYT

     

    Raising (and Educating) 'Free Range Kids'

    Hack Education - 19 Abril, 2015 - 20:35

    This post first appeared in January 2015 on Educating Modern Learners

    Another week, another story of parents under investigation for letting their kids play outside without supervision.

    Ten year-old Rafi and six-year-old Dvora Meitiv had been allowed by their parents to walk around their Silver Springs, Maryland neighborhood. But recently, as they walked the two blocks to a nearby park, someone called the police and Child Protective Services.

    A local television station reports,

    "They came and they interviewed kids at school without our permission or knowledge. And when they were talking to them, they were painting a picture of a world that is very scary," said the children's father, Sasha Meitiv.


    Danielle and Sasha Meitiv now say their parenting style is under assault. Police and Child Protective Services have come to their home and questioned their children at their elementary school.


    "They were asking my son Rafi what he would do if he was grabbed by a stranger. Telling them, you know there are creeps out there that are just waiting to grab children if they're walking by themselves," Sasha said.

    (Update April 2015: The police recently picked up the Meitiv children again, holding them in the back of a patrol car for three hours.)

    The Meitivs aren't alone. There seems to be a growing number of these sorts of cases (in the media at least). A Florida mom arrested after she let her seven-year-old walk to a park alone. A South Carolina mom arrested after she let her nine-year-old play at the park alone. An Illinois mom arrested for leaving her four-year-old in the car when she ran into a store for five minutes.

    That mom, Kim Brooks, wrote about her experiences last year in Salon, including a conversation with Lenore Skenazy, who founded the Free Range Kids movement following her own experiences allowing her nine-year-old son to ride the NYC subway alone. "There's been this huge cultural shift," Skenazy argues. "We now live in a society where most people believe a child can not be out of your sight for one second, where people think children need constant, total adult supervision. This shift is not rooted in fact. It's not rooted in any true change. It's imaginary. It's rooted in irrational fear."

    For many of us, this move towards "constant, total adult supervision" runs counter to our memories of childhood. Even so, more and more of us are apparently prone to "over-parent" and "over-protect."

    It's worth asking, of course, if we are hearing more about these sorts of cases because white and/or middle class families are being targeted by Child Protective Services - something that poor families and families of color have long experienced.

    Technology and Surveillance

    Nonetheless I'd agree with Skenazy: something does seem to be changing with how we view childhood and freedom.

    I'd argue that this cultural shift is partially about fear, but it's also tied to a growing surveillance culture. Thanks in part to the ubiquity of technology, we are constantly watched and watching. And thanks to social media, we often feel compelled to share our corrections and condemnations in turn.

    As Swarthmore professor Timothy Burke observes, "The problem with a lot of our ubiquitous surveillance is precisely not that it is overtly hateful and hating. Instead, what makes so much of it easy to pursue is that it presents itself as a kindness." And that so-called "kindness" is probably partially what's at play when someone calls the police because they see a child alone. The repercussions, of course, are so incredibly damaging to the families involved.

    The Role of Schools

    The incidents described above all deal with parenting decisions. But what role do schools play - not simply in monitoring students but in discouraging (or perhaps encouraging) students' physical freedom?

    One of school's purposes arguably is to provide adult supervision (and yes, teaching) for children. Does that need to be re-thought now that some children might have fewer opportunities to be alone, to monitor themselves?

    Do we let students roam - physically and intellectually - at school? Why or why not?

    And which students get to experience that freedom (both at home and at school)? How do restrictions on physical movement play out based on gender, on race, on class? And conversely, how do arguments for "free range kids" play out based on gender, on race, on class?

    How does rhetoric about children "in danger" - online and offline - shape how we treat them at school? Does it mean that we further restrict their actions and their agency?

    Encendre i apagar 2 LED de manera simultània

    Competència TIC - 19 Abril, 2015 - 20:10
    PRÀCTICAProposta de treballProgramar amb Bitbloq la nostra placa Arduino per encendre i apagar dos LED de manera simultània.



    Material necessari
    • Placa Arduino o compatible
    • 2 LED
    • Cable USB
    Passos a seguir
    • Connectar la placa Arduino a l'ordinador amb el cable USB
    • Com que el LED és un component digital (amb 2 estats possibles: encès o apagat), cal connectar-los als pins digitals de la placa
    • Dissenyar un programa amb bitbloq 
    • Verificar el programa, carregar-lo a la placa i comprovar el seu funcionament
    Entorn de programació
    Captura de pantalla del projecte Bitbloq

    Detall dels blocs de codi

      Categorías: General

      Twitter in the classroom

      Learning with 'e's - 19 Abril, 2015 - 11:43
      Today I had an interesting exchange of views on Twitter... about Twitter. I mentioned that I strongly encourage the use of Twitter in my classes. Someone remarked that they thought it was strange that I 'interposed media between myself and my students.' Well, firstly, this sounds as though I am deliberately trying to hide behind technology, which is patently untrue. If I wanted to hide behind technology, I would stay at home, and use my laptop and 'death by PowerPoint' to lecture to my students from a safe distance. I would probably turn off my camera too, so I didn't have to shave or comb my hair. No, you can be assured that if I use any technology with my students, it is for a clearly thought through, and logical reason that supports good pedagogy.

      Secondly, students are going to use Twitter and other media anyway, regardless. My view is, let's harness whatever personal tools students bring with them to enhance their learning experience, and provide them with opportunities to extend their learning. My education students are usually in year cohorts of about 180 students. Large plenaries are presented with guest speakers in lecture theatres, and then they are split into 6 or 7 smaller seminar groups where discussion, debate, and other forms of discursive learning are supported.

      During the lectures, I encourage students to interact with each other and the speakers by using Twitter as a backchannel. We select a unique hashtag for the module and this is used on all the tweets that are relevant to the lessons. This means that only the relevant tweets can be shown on large screens, or filtered by individuals on their handheld devices. Most students carry a mobile phone and/or tablet computer/laptop around with them and use them during the sessions to search for additional content, interact and post messages to their student spaces on Facebook. They also use them to capture images and sounds during the lecture for reference later on. The backchannel is an ideal medium for them to engage with people outside the classroom too. On at least one occasion students have been able to interact directly with well known authors and academics who are highly relevant to the topics they are studying.

      When students are split up for seminars, and where the seminars run simultaneously, Twitter is used as an addiional medium of communication, and ideas are shared between groups. Often students take and send pictures of their group work so that other students can benefit from the discussion without being present in the room. The hashtag ensure that an archive of all relevant tweets can be accessible weeks after the seminars and lectures, so that students can refer back to content that may be useful for their assignments.

      Twitter continues to be a versatile tool for good pedagogy. Those who reject it as frivolous or a distraction are often those who have seen poor use or have simply not given it enough time to see its relevance.

      Photo from Wikimedia Blog


      Twitter in the classroom by Steve Wheeler was written in Plymouth, England is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.Posted by Steve Wheeler from Learning with e's

      Patient Zero of the selfie age: Why JenniCam abandoned her digital life

      OLDaily - 18 Abril, 2015 - 22:23
      Display


      Emma Reynolds, News.com.au, Apr 18, 2015

      The subtext of this item is that there is something wrong with sharing your life online, because after all the original "cam girl", Jennifer Ringley of JenniCan, gave it up after seven years and not has no social networking presence at all. But I think that reflects more the price of fame than of sharing, and I don't think we should accept the subtext. Nonetheless, this is a fascinating article well worth reading and an interetsing look back at, if you will, a more innocent internet.

      [Link] [Comment]
      Categorías: General

      The Open Publishing Revolution, Now Behind A Billion-Dollar Paywall

      OLDaily - 18 Abril, 2015 - 22:23
      Display


      Tina Amirtha, Fast Comnpany, Apr 18, 2015

      Mendeley, as the author notes, built a piece of software "aimed at helping researchers organize their papers, annotate them, and share them with each other." In 2013 the company was acquired by Elsevier, which had "to squash the threat Mendeley posed to its traditional subscription model, and to own the ecosystem that Mendeley had constructed, with its valuable data on the behavior of millions of researchers." The reaction of members was, not surprisingly, widely negative. This article looks at the fallout, two years later, and some the efforts Elsevier has taken to soften its image.

      [Link] [Comment]
      Categorías: General

      The History of the Future of the Push-Button School

      Hack Education - 18 Abril, 2015 - 20:35

      The military has long been involved in the development of education technology – hardly surprising considering the number of people it must train. From a 1988 report from the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment:

      The military services continue to support important work on basic research on cognition, artificial intelligence, speech recognition, interactive learning systems, and converging technologies. The military has been a major, and occasionally the major, player in advancing the state-of-the-art. Computers would probably have found their way into classrooms sooner or later. But without work on PLATO, the IBM System 1500, computer-based equipment simulation, intelligent instructional systems, videodisc applications, and research on cognition, it is unlikely that the electronic revolution in education would have progressed as far and as fast as it has.

      The military has influenced the shape that educational technologies have taken: the prioritization of efficiency, efficacy, and standardization, for example. There’s also been a long-running push for automation: not simply because machines can perform certain tasks more rapidly, but because in doing so military personnel can be spared. As Simon Ramo put it in his 2011 book, Let Robots Do the Dying.

      Let Robots Do the Teaching

      Sometimes described as “the father of the intercontinental ballistic missile,” Simon Ramo helped develop missile and microwave technologies, as well as General Electric’s electron microscope. Ramo is also the oldest person to have received a patent, when at age 100, his patent for a “Method and apparatus for interactive, computer-based, automatically adaptable learning” was published. (“Preferably, but not necessarily, the apparatus includes an instructor,” it reads.)

      (Note the American flag in this illustration that accompanies the patent.)

      Ramo’s patent echoes the vision for the future of education that he laid out in an article he wrote many decades earlier, “A New Technique of Education,” published in Engineering and Science Monthly in 1957. (1957 was, incidentally, the same year that the Soviets launched Sputnik I.)

      The rapid and potentially dislocating scientific advance can be expected to heighten the coming crisis in education. Already, the increasingly technical world uses more scientists and engineers, yet the very industrial development that is part of the growing technical society takes the engineers and scientists away from the university and high-school facilities, and the fast world in which we live makes the long study of science seem unattractive to the youngsters. The technical society is complex, rapid, and increasingly dangerous. We can blow up the whole world, yet such a premium is put on the use of our human and physical resources for everything but education that it seems that the new technical society is going to be accompanied by a weakened ability to keep pace education-wise.

      What we need to address this crisis, Ramo argues, is “a new technique of education,” one that is as technologically sophisticated as the rest of modern science.

      Here’s Ramo’s vision of the high school of the future:

      First of all, we will get the student registered. I won’t burden you with the details here: when the registration is complete and the course of study suitable for that individual has been determined, the student receives a specially stamped small plate about the size of a “charga-plate,” which identifies both him and his program. (If this proves too burdensome for the student, who will be required to have the plate with him most of the time, then we may spend a little more money on the installation and go directly to the fingerprint system)


      When this plate is introduced at any time into an appropriate large data and analysis machine near the principal’s office, and if the right levers are pulled by its operator, the entire record and progress of this student will immediately be made available. As a matter of fact, after completing his registration, the student introduces his plate into one machine on the way out, which quickly prints out some tailored information so that he knows where he should go at various times of the day and anything else that is expected of him.

      Students are tracked and monitored - both their location and their academic progress.

      A typical school day will consist of a number of sessions, some of which are spent, as now, in rooms with other students and a teacher and some of which are spent with a machine. Sometimes a human operator is present with the machine and sometimes not.

      But can a machine replace a teacher?

      One thing needs to be said at the outset. Any attempt to extend the teaching staff with any kind of mechanical aids would appear to have at least one very fundamental limitation. It would seem that, unless a highly intelligent, trained, and authoritative teacher is available, there is no equivalent way of adapting the material to be presented to the individual student’s need, or to judge the understanding and reception of the material and adjust it to the student during the presentation, to discover his questions, weaknesses and misunderstandings, nip them in the bud, and otherwise provide the feedback and interaction between teacher and student that are so essential in transferring knowledge from one person to another.


      It is for this apparent reason that, although we can use motion pictures and television to replace a lecturer and can, in theory at least, be more efficient in the use of one skilled teacher’s time, enabling him to reach a larger audience, we can only use such techniques for a limited fraction of the total school day. However, you will see in the systems that I propose that, in principle at least, modern technology can go a long way toward removing this apparently fundamental limitation.

      Push-Button Classes

      Artwork inspired by Ramo. Image credits

      This classroom has some special equipment. Each chair includes a special set of push buttons, and, of course, that constant slot into which the student places his identification plate. The plate automatically records his presence at that class, and it connects his push buttons with the master records machine.


      If the class is large, our student is much less likely to sleep or look out of the window than in a normal lecture by a human teacher, because, throughout the motion picture that presents some phrase of the fundamentals of trigonometry, he is called upon to respond by pushing various keys. He is asked questions about the material just presented, usually in the form of alternatives. Sometimes he is told that the concept will be repeated and the questions re-asked, this time for the record. He may even be asked whether, in his opinion, he understood what we being presented.

      How “personalized” the push-button classes will be!

      At certain other periods during the week, this student continues his trigonometry instruction in a different kind of environment. This time he is seated in front of a special machine, again with a special animated film and a keyboard, but he is now alone and he knows that this machine is much more interested in his individual requirements. It is already set up in consideration of his special needs. It is ready to go fast if he is fast, slow if he is slow. It will considerably repeated what he has missed before and will gloss over what he has proven he knows well. This machine continues the presentation of some principles and asks for answers to determine understandings.

      What becomes of the teacher’s role then?

      A brilliant student could romp through trigonometry in a very small fraction of the course time. A dull student would have to spend more time with the machines. The machines can be so set up that if a student fails to make progress at the required rate, he can be automatically dropped from the course. Of course, before that happens or before the brilliant student is allowed to complete the course, a special session with that student by a skilled teacher is indicated. But the teacher will be aided by having before him the complete records of what could be weeks of intensive machine operations.

      The teacher as mentor; the teacher as interventionist and counselor; the teacher as data analyst. But mostly, the machines as teacher.

      A New Education Industry

      To back this up, of course, one would have a very substantial new industry in the United States concerned with the creating of these educational machines and the motion pictures and memory data used by the machines. In general, the industrial organizations concerned with the creation of machines that make possible the teaching of mathematics would have to employ experts in education, experts in mathematics, and experts in engineering. And this industrial team would have to be in good contact with the skilled teachers who make up the high school staff in order that they might be able to improve their machines, create proper material, and learn the shortcomings of all their designs – either of the machine or of the material.


      In addition, the high-school teaching staff would include education analysts, probably specializing in the various subjects. These individuals would go through the records of the individual students. They would be constantly seeking to discover the special problems that need special attention by the direct contact of teacher and pupil.


      We notice a number of very significant points here. The high school becomes partially transformed into a center run by administrators and clerks, with a minimum of the routine assigned to the teaching staff. The teaching staff is elevated to a role that uses the highest intelligence and skills. A smaller number of teachers makes possible the education of a larger number of pupils. The creation of educational material moves partially out into industry, which goes into the education business in partnership with educators.


      There is probably a new profession known as “teaching engineer,” that kind of engineering which is concerned with the educational process and with the design of the machines, as well as the design of the material.

      A new profession, and a new industry. A future of education that is intertwined, as Ramo would frame it, in scientific and technological advancement - automation and teaching machines - for the sake of national security.

      And as USC education and instructional technology professor James D. Finn called it, Ramo's essay provides "the greatest visions of what might be possible in education."

      Encendre i apagar un LED de manera intermitent

      Competència TIC - 18 Abril, 2015 - 11:32
      PRÀCTICAProposta de treballProgramar amb Bitbloq la nostra placa Arduino per encendre i apagar un LED de manera intermitent.



      Material necessari
      • Placa Arduino o compatible
      • LED
      • Cable USB
      Passos a seguir
      • Connectar la placa Arduino a l'ordinador amb el cable USB
      • Com que el LED és un component digital (amb 2 estats possibles: encès o apagat), cal connectar-lo a un dels pins digitals de la placa
      • Dissenyar un programa amb bitbloq 
      • Verificar el programa, carregar-lo a la placa i comprovar el seu funcionament
      Entorn de programació
      Captura de pantalla del projecte Bitbloq

      Detall dels blocs de codi

        Categorías: General

        What Harvard Business School Has Learned About Online Collaboration From HBX

        OLDaily - 17 Abril, 2015 - 22:15
        Display


        Bharat Anand, Jan Hammond, V.G. Narayanan, Harvard Business Review, Apr 17, 2015

        I think I have to file this under the category of "catching up" as the 'lessons' learned by Harvard Business School have long been known and studied in the wider online learning and distance education communities. Indeed, some of the recommendations they make - like having people begin by introducing each other in an online discussion, or that "norms of online collaboration can be shaped" - had become cliché s long before HBS 'discovered' them. More recent work has been focused on how to adapt these long-known techniques to massive and open online courses (because, as we all know, a thread consisting of 160,000 introductions is unmanageable). And some of the 'discoveries' appear to be genuine but have been disproven by deeper investigation. Extrinsic motivation, such as paying people, or tying collaboration to grades, may appear to work in the short term, but  fails in the longer term.

        [Link] [Comment]
        Categorías: General

        Education shouldn't be a zero-sum game

        OLDaily - 17 Abril, 2015 - 22:15
        Display


        Andrew Parkin, Academica, Apr 17, 2015

        Is Canada really over-emphasizing university graduation? It has one of the highest rates of university and post-secondary education completion rates in the world: "In Canada, 50% of the adult population has completed tertiary education, easily the highest rate in the OECD." But  a recent report for the Canadian Council on Chief Executives recommended cutting back on university degrees. "Canada could dramatically improve the quality of university education by cutting enrolment as much as 25 to 30 per cent," wrote Ken Coates. But it's not clear exactly what problem this solves. As Andrew Parkin writes in Academica, "Canada does not look at all like a country that has over-emphasized university education to the detriment of colleges," he writes. "The problem is not an over-emphasis on universities but an under-emphasis on any and all forms of postsecondary education and training." And it's not clear that a more open admissions policy in either system acts to the detriment of either quality or outcome. Quite the opposite: a wider admissions policy lessens our reliance on testing and enables those without the advantages of socio-economic status find an environment where they can thrive and flourish - people like me. Image: Herald Sun.

        [Link] [Comment]
        Categorías: General

        Being There: Heidegger on Why Our Presence Matters

        OLDaily - 17 Abril, 2015 - 22:15
        Display


        Lawrence Berger, New York Times, Apr 17, 2015

        On reading the headline I immediately thought of Terry Anderson.  He writes of the importance of 'presence' in learning "that views the creation of an effective online educational community as involving three critical components: cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence." As this article in the NY Times notes, the idea of presence is linked to the idea of our consciousness of external objects. Heidegger would ask, "given that I experience a stone in a more profound manner, what does that have to do with the being of the stone itself?" And Lawrence Berger offers the explanation, "Not only are we in direct contact with the people and things of this world, but also that our presence matters for how they are made manifest — how they come into presence — in the full potential that is associated with the sort of beings that they are." Now I don't believe this exactly - I don't think there's some sort of mystical projection of ourselves into the external world. But presence and consciousness are closely linked.

        [Link] [Comment]
        Categorías: General

        Hack Education Weekly News

        Hack Education - 17 Abril, 2015 - 20:35
        Education Politics

        The NCLB rewrite has made it out of committee on a unanimous vote. Whee.

        From the Chicago Tribune: “Federal authorities are investigating Chicago Public Schools CEO Barbara Byrd-Bennett and a $20.5 million contract the district awarded on a no-bid basis to a training academy that formerly employed her.” In light of this story and recent concerns over the business dealings of ed-tech VC and CPS board member Deborah Quazzo, it’s pretty great timing for this story from Edsurge: “What Edtech Companies Need to Do To Sell to Chicago Public Schools.”

        The European Union is accusing Google of antitrust violations, accusing it of “abusing its dominance in web searches.” More via The New York Times and IHE blogger Tracy Mitrano.

        A federal judge has dismissed a lawsuit against the Department of Education filed by student loan debt collectors, who claim that the department unfairly cut ties with them earlier this year. Inside Higher Ed reports that a bill before the Ohio House Finance Committee would “reclassify professors who participate in virtually anything other than teaching and research as supervisors or managers, and therefore exempt from collective bargaining. So serving on a committee, for example, turns a professor into a manager.”

        Slate’s Rebecca Schuman excoriates a proposed North Carolina bill that would require all professors at the state’s public universities to teach a 4–4-load.

        “The Education Department Is Working On A Process For Forgiving Student Loans,” says Buzzfeed’s Molly Hensley-Clancy. (The loans for students of “troubled colleges,” to be clear.)

        Also via Hensley-Clancy (and related to the whole “troubled college” business), “the Department of Education will fine Corinthian Colleges $29.6 million for lying to students at its Heald College chain, citing almost 1,000 examples of defrauding students about job placement rates.”

        Rand Paul wants to make college tuition tax-deductible.”

        Who’s most excited for Hillary Clinton to replace Obama? Teachers unions.” Ugh.

        Education in the Courts

        The Atlanta educators recently convicted for their roles in the district’s cheating scandal were sentenced this week. The sentences include up to seven years in prison.

        A Virginia judge has rejected a request by alumnae of Sweet Briar College to issue an injunction to prevent the school from moving forward with its plans to close.

        Two federal lawsuits have been filed against Dr. Rex L. Mahnensmith, a former professor at Yale Medical School, charging him with sexual harassment.

        Testing, Testing…

        Nevada schools experienced a computer glitch, halting CCSS testing.

        North Dakota schools experienced a computer glitch, halting CCSS testing.

        Montana schools experienced a computer glitch, halting CCSS testing. Although it’s now been fixed, the state says districts can continue to opt out of administering the tests because of the problems.

        Nearly 15% of New Jersey eleventh graders have opted out of standardized tests this year. Students in New York are also opting out at such a rate that there are concerns the state might not meet the requirement that 95% to take them.

        “PARCC and test provider Pearson are trying to trim the time of their Common Core tests by combining the two waves of testing into one,” according to The Plain Dealer. Currently the tests take about 5 hours for math and 5 hours for English.

        Pearson is asking the state of California to re-bid a testing contract “potentially worth a quarter of a billion dollars, arguing that a tentative agreement with a rival vendor is misguided, and illegal.”

        Privacy and Surveillance

        “A 14-year-old Florida boy has been charged with felony computer intrusion after shoulder-surfing his school’s computer network password and using it to play a prank on a teacher,” reports Ars Technica.

        An op-ed in the NY Daily News argues that now that NYC has lifted the ban on cellphones in schools, there needs to be a better policy to protect students’ privacy and prevent unreasonable searches of the devices.

        Via The Toronto Star: “Toronto’s public school board hid a camera in the office of a principal suspected of misconduct, putting him under surveillance for ‘months’ before a caretaker found the device in a clock, says the Ontario Principals’ Council in an email to all Toronto administrators.”

        MOOCs and UnMOOCs

        A bit of an accreditation hiccup in Yale’s plans to offer its Physician Assistant degree online via 2U. In the words of the Yale Daily News: “Online PA Program Proposal Rejected.” “Delayed” might be a more accurate verb.

        “MIT Launches Online Education Policy Initiative,” reports Inside Higher Ed, to study “the impacts of online learning on the higher education community from a policy perspective.”

        What Harvard Business School Has Learned About Online Collaboration” (That "MOOC-related news still gets headlines" was not included, but we all knew that already.)

        Meanwhile on Campus

        The faculty at UCLA “approved, by a large margin, a controversial new policy that requires most future undergraduates to take a course on ethnic, cultural, religious or gender diversity,” reports The LA Times.

        NPR examines the student-led efforts on college campuses to push for divestment from the fossil fuel industry.

        Struggling HBCU Knoxville College is suspending its fall classes in order to reorganize.

        Virginia tops nation in sending students to cops, courts,” says The Center for Public Integrity.

        “Back in 2010, Education Secretary Arne Duncan called Hurricane Katrina the best thing to happen to public education in New Orleans because it gave reformers a rare chance to reset the entire system.” That’s the lede in Caitlin Emma’s story in Politico: “The New Orleans model: Praised but unproven.”

        Read a professor of medicine's outraged tweets from her son's abstinence-only sex ed class.”

        LAUSD’s iPads: The Saga Continues

        Shocking, I know, but LAUSD is “‘extremely dissatisfied’ with the work of Pearson on its technology initiative.” Local NPR affiliate SCPR reports that the district is asking for a refund from Apple for the Pearson software that came bundled with its massive iPad purchase.

        “L.A. schools iPad program subject of inquiry by SEC.” reports The LA Times. But hey, it’s just an “informal inquiry” so nbd.

        Go, School Sports Team!

        The Denver Post reports that “Bowl games paid more than a half billion dollars to college football conferences and schools last season, the most ever and an increase of almost $200 million from the final season of the Bowl Championship Series to the first of the College Football Playoff.”

        Eastern Maine Community College is suspending its athletics program for 2015–2016.

        FSU quarterback Jameis Winston is being sued by the woman he allegedly raped in 2012.

        “All 3 Oregon Basketball Players Suspended Over Sexual Assault Find New Teams,” reports Inside Higher Ed.

        From the HR Department

        As part of its deal with the NY State Attorney General, Cooper Union will not renew the contract of its president Jamshed Bharucha.

        “Where Are the Teachers of Color?” asks NYT’s Motoko Rich.

        Via The New York Times: “About one-third of the migrant construction workers employed at New York University's campus in Abu Dhabi - or about 10,000 people - were excluded from the protections of the university's labor guidelines ensuring fair wages, hours and living conditions.”

        Someone Calculated How Many Adjunct Professors Are on Public Assistance, and the Number Is Startling.” (It’s 25%. I saved you a click.)

        Meanwhile, according to the AAUP, faculty salaries are up slightly.

        Upgrades and Downgrades

        McGraw-Hill and Microsoft “embrace open learning,” the Ed-Tech Magazine headline reads. The story contains the phrase “compound learning object,” which when I read it I just knew was going to make David Wiley freak out. Here’s his response, a little history lesson about learning objects (die die die) and the Reusability Paradox.

        Google is launching a “Designed for Families” program to help parents find “pre-approved, child-appropriate apps on the Google Play store.” Google’s YouTube Kids promised the same sort of thing, but has recently come under fire for “unfair and deceptive marking.”

        From Wired’s Klint Finley: “Internet of Anything: Simple Tools Make It Possible for Anyone to Hack Robots.” The “simple” and “anyone” rhetoric is usually really irksome but a) I like Klint and think he’s one of the smartest tech writers working today so I’ll give him a pass and 2) this story is about Ron Evans, who worked on Hypercard, so nostalgia probably gets the best of me here.

        The Library of Congress is looking for people to build educational apps. Congress has earmarked $950,000 for the initiative. Bonus points if someone makes an app that teaches the head of the LOC to use email.

        Learn-to-code startup Tynker will be offering classes at some 600 Sylvan Learning locations. Well, there's a business opportunity, I'm sure.

        Indian Internet companies are withdrawing from Facebook’s Internet.org, its organization that claims to help improve access to the Internet Facebook in the developing world. The companies are pulling out in part over concerns over net neutrality and Internet.org’s corporate partners deciding “who gets access to what and how fast.”

        Funding and Acquisitions

        Ellucian has acquired Helix Education’s comptency-based education LMS. Here’s Mindwire Consulting’s Phil Hill pragmatic take on the deal: “will it matter?” And via Edsurge, here’s the breathless excitement from the Clayton Christensen Institute’s Michael Horn and Entangled Ventures’ Paul Freedman: “Ellucian’s Acquisition and the New LMS Wars.”

        Entangled Ventures (see above and/or see last week’s CHE article on founder Paul Freedman) has raised $2.5 million “from founders and friends.”

        Blackboard has acquired Moodle hosting/consulting company Remote Learner UK. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.

        TES Global has acquired the higher ed job network Unijobs. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.

        EBSCO has acquired Learning Express. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.

        Sheet music app Tonara has raised $5 million from Baidu, Carmel Ventures, and Lool Ventures. The startup has raised $9.75 million total.

        The Flatiron School has raised $9 million from Thrive Capital, CRV, and Matrix. The startup, which offers coding classes in NYC, has raised $14.5 million total.

        “Brain training” startup Peak has raised $7 million from Creandum, DN Capital, London Venture Partners, and Qualcomm Ventures. The company has raised $10 million total.

        Singapore based VivaLing, which offers online language classes for children, has raised $365,000 from “respected local investors.”

        Data and “Research”

        Once again, Sherman Alexie’s The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian tops the ALA’s list of the most challenged library books.

        Drawing on research from Northwestern University, Mother Jones says “Kids Who Have to Share iPads Learn Better Than Kids Who Have Their Own.” Me, I’ve got lots of questions about the research design and conclusions, but hey, nice headline.

        “Tutors aren't just for underachieving kids anymore,” according to Macleans. “They're the new normal.” Considering the story highlights parents who spend $700 to $800 a month on tutoring, I do have questions about who exactly can afford “normal.”

        Via Education Week: “Blended Learning Research: The Seven Studies You Need to Know.”

        The Chronicle of Higher Education has a summary of the latest Gallup / Lumina Foundation poll on “what people think about college.”

        According to the CDC, teens’ use of e-cigarettes now outpaces their use of any other tobacco product. Hooray, technology!

        Wikileaks has posted a searchable archive of the hacked Sony documents. I'm only including this in my news roundup because "Harvard" is an interesting search query.

        Via Education Week: “Writing in Google Docs Doesn’t Affect Student Test Scores, Early Research Finds.” So ya know, why bother.

        Barbara Ericson looks at increasing enrollment in CS programs and asks “Is Computing Just for Men?”

        Considering all the new education technology incubators that keep popping up, this headline made me chuckle: “Research Questions Whether Or Not Incubators Help Startups.”

        Via Edsurge: “How Edtech Companies Can Invest in the Educations of All Students.” (tl;dr: by privatizating education.)

        Programació amb Bitbloq i Arduino

        Competència TIC - 17 Abril, 2015 - 18:55
        Bitblog és un entorn de programació molt semblant a l'Scratch. Bitblog utilitza blocs de codi, classificats per categories, que hem d'apilar per crear els nostres programes. Treballem, per tant, en un entorn de programació molt visual.



        Una vegada hem creat el nostre programa, el podem compilar, per verificar si hi ha errades, i el podem carregar, via USB, a la nostra placa controladora Arduino o compatible.


        Pràctiques



        Categorías: General

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