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Some comments on Twitter and on my blog have suggested that the binary between the two positions is unhelpful. There have been arguments that teachers switch between the two positions according to context. I'm not denying either of these two kinds of argument. But I will say this: it matters not whether or not individual teachers switch between modes, what matters is that there are indeed two opposing philosophies, and they both heavily influence the way schools are run. The tension between the two stances has previously caused disagreement, and will continue to do so, among educators. A binary does exist, and if leaders of schools subscribe to say a traditional approach to education, generally the school they manage will tend to follow that pattern of delivery. I have visited schools that are fully traditional in their approach and I have also been to schools where the ethos is wholly progressive. The differences are stark. Individual teachers do have a choice to determine their approach in the classroom, but realistically, these choices are limited, particularly if they are expected to tow the party line of their leadership.
One of the most marked distinctions between traditional and progressive approaches - and a battle line that will play increasing importance as the debate continues - concerns the role of the teacher. In the purest format of traditional education, teachers act as experts who deliver content to their students. They generally take a position at the front of the classroom and this is where all the action takes place. The whiteboard and other teacher resources are located here. Students are physically oriented toward this position by carefully planned seating. They are expected to pay attention to the expert, and learning is largely passive. The teacher's responsibility is to ensure that all students receive the same knowledge, at the same time. Later they are assessed on what they have remembered, and are given a grade to show how well they have been able to do so.
By contrast, progressive education views the role of the teacher as a co-learner. The teacher may be a content expert, but the most important part of their role is to facilitate learning of that content rather than simply to present it. This might involve active forms of learning where students discuss, explore through making and through solving problems. In progressive education approaches, teachers stand back and avoid the delivery of content as much as possible, creating an environment within which enquiry can be undertaken and where students generally assume more responsibility over their own learning. Assessment of learning in progressive education is more likely to be assessment for learning. This focuses more on individual progress than to measuring performance against a specific set of norm referenced criteria.
Again this is a simplistic characterisation of the two positions and there are bound to be more objections, but the definitions of roles above resonate with my experiences of recent school visits. This is by no means a complete argument. You can see them as notes in an ongoing series of thoughts about how education is being shaped and how this will play out in the continuing battle over our children's futures.
Photo by Shakata Ga Nai on Wikimedia Commons
Battle lines by Steve Wheeler was written in Istanbul, Turkey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.Posted by Steve Wheeler from Learning with e's
Innovation Design In Education - ASIDE: "What Is Graphicacy?" — An Essential Literacy Explained In An Animated Motion Graphic
Innovative design crosses over all aspects of education. The American Society for Innovation Design in Education, or ASIDE, seeks to infuse curriculum with new approaches to teaching and thinking. Integrating the design of information into the daily conversation is an essential part of the teacher's toolkit and the purpose of the ASIDE blog. The underpinning of innovation and educational design is based on looking at the information available and communicating meaning for a world of learners. Thinking like a designer can transform the way children learn. ASIDE's goal is to bring together as much information, resources and supportive scholarship in one place for teaching and learning.
See it on Scoop.it, via Educación flexible y abierta
We're just now waiting for the final report from this group which has been looking at quality in online courses. They launched the eCampusAlberta Quality Suite 2.0 in 2014. "The suite is comprised of the Essential Quality Standards, the eLearning Rubric, the Quality eToolkit, an online review and database system, and many quality-related professional development resources and opportunities." Sheri Oberman writes asking "I wonder how much the quality rubric factors in the connectivism and heutagogy." It's a good question. She suggests a course leaves "long tail of relationships, questions, and methodologies." But must it? Is more better? I've always shied away from discussion of 'quality' connections - I really dislike the concept. If quality in a course isn't process-based (ie., isn't based on evaluations of autonomy, diversity, etc) then what is it? I haven't seen a good answer.[Link] [Comment]
Rey Junco argues that the dangers of online harassment though anonymous messaging sites like YikYak are overstated. "Do issues of harassment happen on Yik Yak?" he asks. "Yes. Do they occur with a frequency that is disconcerting?" He does not state where he obtained these statistics, now what level of harassment constitutes "disconcerting" (one suspects he might have a higher tolerance for it than others). He also argues that Yik Yak has built-in measures to address harassment: "If a Yak or a comment receives 5 down votes, it is removed permanently from Yik Yak." My experience is that this is a mechanism more commonly used to stifle people objecting to harassing content.[Link] [Comment]
I thought the LinkedIn for students was Facebook - but I guess times have changed. "Riipen is an interactive way to pad your resume for students and recent grads.... With Riipen, students can build their online profiles and meet companies via short-term, skill specific projects and paid work opportunities. Companies will post projects on Riipen, who will then alert users by targeted email blasts or through one of the company’ s social media channels." Of course, this could end up being 'the unpaid labour path for students', so there's a bit of a risk there. And actually, it seems more to me to be 'the Monster for students'.[Link] [Comment]
Es una metodología que se caracteriza en que el profesor encarga a sus alumnos como deberes que estudien la lección en casa consultando las fuentes de información que les indica (vídeos hechos por él mismo u otros seleccionados de Internet, otros textos o documentos multimedia...) y se aprovecha el tiempo de clase para aclarar las dudas y para realizar ejercicios y otras actividades en grupo.
Se llama también "clase inversa", ya que supone cambiar lo que tradicionalmente se hacía: estudiar en clase lo que el profesor explica, haciendo algunos ejercicios y hacer como deberes más ejercicios en casa.
La "clase inversa" está en el marco de los planteamientos actuales sobre las metodologías didácticas que conviene aplicar, teniendo en cuenta que los estudiantes de nuestra Era Internet pueden acceder de forma autónoma a todo tipo de información y que por lo tanto a menudo el papel del profesor como transmisor de información resulta innecesario.
Subrayamos "a menudo" (y no decimos "casi siempre") porque en función de la edad de los estudiantes y de los contenidos a aprender (comprender, relacionar, aplicar) seguirá habiendo muchas ocasiones en las que la explicación del profesor seguirá siendo lo más eficaz y conveniente.
No obstante, y en la etapa de enseñanza obligatoria, a la propuesta de "clase inversa" le encuentro un grave inconveniente: exige encargar "deberes" a los alumnos para hacer en casa después de las 6 horas de horario escolar.
Y esto conlleva que los alumnos más desmotivados o con mayores dificultades de aprendizaje, que incluso con la presencia del profesor cuesta que trabajen en clase, en casa no harán los "deberes". De manera que llegarán a clase "en blanco" y difícilmente podrán enterarse de los comentarios aclaratorios que haga el profesor y participar en los ejercicios que se realicen a continuación.
Además, soy de los que cree que con 6 horas de trabajo en la escuela, los alumnos de la etapa de enseñanza obligatoria ya tienen suficiente, y al salir de la escuela deberían realizar otras actividades lúdicas, colaborativas... y descansar. A no ser que sean alumnos con notables dificultades y que están sometidos temporalmente a un plan intensivo de trabajo en la escuela y luego en casa.
Por todo ello, reconociendo las aportaciones del sistema "flipped classroom" me inclino más por una variante del mismo lo que podríamos llamar "clase reinversa".
¿Qué es la "clase reinversa"?
Es una metodología que se caracteriza en que el profesor encarga a sus alumnos que estudien la lección en clase (durante un tiempo adecuado, y opcionalmente por parejas que pueden ayudarse) consultando las fuentes de información que les indica (vídeos hechos por él mismo u otros seleccionados de Internet, otros textos o documentos multimedia...) y se aprovecha el tiempo restante de clase para aclarar las dudas y para realizar ejercicios y otras actividades en grupo.
Así, en clase, estudiando en parejas (a veces el profesor organizará parejas en las que uno de los alumnos hará de "compañero tutor" del otro y le ayudará)
se facilita aún más el aprendizaje y la presencia del profesor moviéndose alrededor de los estudiantes puede alejar distracciones y resolver algunas dudas "just in time".
Time to get blogging again. And what better way than with a short rant.
In recent years airports have made big strides in providing access to the internet. True some still try and make you pay after your free period has run out. Others collect your email address so they can spam you forever with reduced offers for parking and flights to somewhere you never want to go to. But on the whole, access is improving (and is faster and more reliable than my home connection.
But the majority still try to hide away all electricity plugs. Over the years I have collected in my head a database of where there are power outlets – often in strange parts of the departures terminals. It is not exactly as if the amount of power laptops take is going to make more than a fraction of a different to overall airport electricity bills.
So congratulations then to Munich airport (yes, I am going to say something nice about Bayern!!). They have fitted power sockets into the spaces between seats to make recharging laptops and mobile simple. Other airports please take note.