agregador de noticias
Khan Academy as Supplemental Instruction: A Controlled Study of a Computer-Based Mathematics Intervention
This post was published in a special issue of IRRODL on empirical studies of implementations of OER. The authors looks at the use of Khan Academy to supplement traditional mathematics instruction and found " unremarkable differences in mean post-assessment scores between the combined math and ELA supplement control and treatment groups." The authors agree that the study is limited and that the Khan Academy might have other benefits. Having said that, we need to ask about whether the analogy with medical intervention that defines this paper is appropriate. Should we consider students as equivalent to a "treatment group"? Would we evaluate culture this way ("the treatment group experienced greater self-motivation after being prescribed Led Zepplin")? I recognize researchers want education to be more like a science, but which science?[Link] [Comment]
La universidad latinoamericana y su itinerancia hacia la apertura. Los desafíos de la sociedad postindustrial
Llamada a contribuciones para la revista Virtualidad, Educación y Ciencia - VESC
Desde la aparición de las modalidades de educación a distancia, la universidad, o mejor cabría decir las universidades latinoamericanas, se han visto inmersas en una cultura de diferenciación en cuanto a modalidades de enseñanza, de atención a los alumnos y por añadidura de atribución de perfiles diferenciados a los profesores.
La Sociedad del conocimiento sin embargo en los últimos tiempos ha propiciado unos esquemas de convergencia. Hoy, por un lado, la razón que dio lugar a la especificación y la justificación de la distancia: La superación de las dificultades y de las limitaciones que imponían las barreras de ubicación o de comunicaciones, ha quedado subsumida como una modalidad más de dificultad junto con otras, que pueden ser superadas con las redes y la tecnología. Son las dificultades impuestas por la ubicación, pero también por la disposición de tiempo, de recursos, por las diferencias de edad, o culturales,… o incluso por las dificultades que impone la propia institución o la organización de la enseñanza. Como lo es , por ejemplo, una misma atención para todos los alumnos independientemente de cual sea su perfil o su situación de aprendizaje. Son las barreras y las dificultades que plantean los estándares educativos a los alumnos. Dificultades que por ser propias de la sociedad imperante, la industrial, se han aceptado como inevitables. Eso por un lado, pero por otro se constata el papel que ha jugado y está jugando la tecnología en la superación de estas dificultades. Ahora, la misma tecnología que ayudó a la educación a distancia convencional, o su evolución, ayuda a todas las modalidades de educación, y a su socaire se han desarrollado innovaciones docentes que antes eran impensables.
De esta forma la educación abierta, en la que, en una situación ideal, se superen todas estas dificultades, se ha constituido en un objetivo para los sistemas educativos en las sociedades desarrolladas. Y sus instituciones, las experiencias que se desarrollan en ellas y centros de investigación se esmeran en indagar qué modalidades de organización, con los usos más adecuados de aplicaciones ---affordances--- son más eficaces para obtener los resultados de aprendizaje propuestos para cada modalidad de estudio, o de rendimiento profesional. Se trata de ofrecer a los profesores y gestores docentes de la enseñanza superios modalidades de diseño instruccional que consigan estos objetivos que faciliten en definitiva la itinerancia de las situaciones actuales a una enseñanza universitaria abierta.
En esta situación los órganos patrocinadores de la revista… y sus consejos editoriales me han encargado la edición de un número especial que aborde precisamente ese tema en el contexto de la universidad latinoamericana.
De esta forma el título y la llamada a contribuciones que se abrirán en breve serán del tenor siguiente:
La universidad latinoamericana y su itinerancia hacia la apertura. Los desafíos de la sociedad postindustrial.Con este tema se quiere hacer una llamada de atención a la particular situación de encrucijada que tiene la universidad latinoamericana en el momento actual y propiciar el debate fundado y la reflexión en torno a ellos, sin patrones de pensamiento que los condicionen.
Hemos optado por estos descriptores porque se trata de constructos conceptuales aceptados por la comunidad internacional académica. En ese sentido podemos citar autores como Wiley, Reigeluth, Conole, Lévy... o, en el ámbito latino, a Piscitelli, Galvis, Rama, Chan,... y los trabajos de quien suscribe. Con ello ponemos sobre la mesa temas vigentes que la comunidad latina tiene que afrontar, con voluntad de analizar las experiencias en presencia, las investigaciones en marcha, así como el estudio de la literatura científica especializada.
El tema de la educación universitaria abierta, y la itinerancia hacia ella, engloba todas las iniciativas, estudios y prácticas tendentes a superar las barreras tradicionales de la educación con ayuda de la tecnología, abriendo de forma inevitable las puertas a nuevas metodologías y entornos de aprendizaje. Por último, el constructo desafíos de la sociedad postindustrial engloba a todas las disrupciones, incluyendo los MOOC , las smartuniversities y otras formas en las que evoluciona la educación universitaria, en el contexto de la sociedad del conocimiento y de la superación de una universidad basada en estándares, como es la de la era industrial.
Esperamos que ingresen las propuestas siguiendo las normas establecidas y por el canal adecuado para presentar los originales. Con la seguridad de que si las dirigen a mi correo como editor email@example.com o como titular de este blog serán igualmente atendidas.
El próximo día 6 de julio, a las 10h de la mañana, en el contexto de la XII Jornada MEDES 2017 de la Fundación Lilly y de la Iniciativa MEDES – MEDicina en Español, me cabe el privilegio de impartir la ponencia
Compartir el conocimiento en el desarrollo de la investigación: Redes sociales científicas, bases de datos científicas y otras plataformas.Esta intervención se integra con otras dos en la mesa “Ciencia-e compartida y generación del conocimiento”. Una sobre compartir los recursos (durante la investigación), por Rafael Aleixandre Benavent, y la otra sobre compartir los resultados (después de la investigación), por Reme Melero.Además habrá otras interesantes mesas y ponencias, pero entre ellas recomiendo particularmente la de Isidro Aguillo sobre “Calidad de la investigación compartida en la web social: Evaluación de los resultados”. El Dr. Aguillo es el creador y factótum del ranking sobre instituciones universitarias y de investigación, así como sobre investigadores, en función de la investigación compartida en la web: Webometrics Ranking of WorldUniversities (Aguillo, Ortega & Fernández, 2008), considerado como uno de los principales referentes mundiales para la calidad universitaria a la par de Shangai o de QS. La recomiendo por su valor intrínseco y por conocer el trabajo y la trayectoria del autorLa actividad tendrá lugar como digo el día 6 de julio en San Lorenzo de El escorial. Madrid (España). En el Real Centro Universitario Escorial “María Cristina”.En los días previos compartiré a través de Slideshare y de las redes sociales la presentación que utilizaré, como hago habitualmente en https://es.slideshare.net/MiguelZapata6A continuación reproduzco el mensaje recibido de Manuel Guzmán Amador gerente de la Fundación Lilly y la invitación que la fundación hace a ustedes.
Queridos ponentes y moderadores:Poco a poco nos vamos aproximando a la fecha de celebración de la XII Jornada MEDES 2017. Queremos compartir con vosotros la excelente acogida que la Jornada está teniendo, otro año más, desde el mismo momento del lanzamiento de la convocatoria a finales del pasado mes de mayo: en pocas fechas tuvimos un centenar de solicitudes de inscripción. A día de hoy, estamos en torno a unos 160 inscritos (anualmente la asistencia viene siendo de unas 140 personas). De tal manera que la semana pasada tomamos la decisión de reservar un espacio mayor en el Euroforum de El Escorial, para así dar cabida a todas las solicitudes, al mismo tiempo que aseguramos más comodidad al contar con mayor espacio. Así pues, ahora disponemos de una sala con capacidad para unas 250 personas. ¡Y la queremos llenar! (…) Muchas gracias. Un abrazo fuerte.Manuel Guzmán AmadorGerentefundaciónLilly
Aguillo, I. F., Ortega, J. L., & Fernández, M. (2008). Webometric ranking of world universities: Introduction, methodology, and future developments. Higher education in Europe, 33(2-3), 233-244.
¿Qué es MEDES?
MEDES es una iniciativa de la Fundación LillyAvda. de la Industria, 30. Alcobendas. 28108-Madrid, SpainTel.: (+34) 91 781 50 70 | Fax: (+34) 91 781 50 firstname.lastname@example.org | www.medes.com
INVITACIÓNNos complace invitarle a la XII Jornada MEDES 2017 que, organizada por la Fundación LILLY con el título “La ciencia compartida en español”, se celebrará el próximo 6 de julio en el marco de los Cursos de Verano Complutense de El Escorial.La excelente acogida de años anteriores nos mueve a organizar esta nueva edición, consolidando este encuentro de la Iniciativa MEDES-MEDicina en ESpañol como un referente inequívoco en la promoción del uso de nuestro idioma para la transmisión y divulgación del conocimiento biomédico.Nuevamente contaremos con ponentes de primer nivel para desarrollar una jornada de actualización y debate que en esta ocasión pondrá su foco en las redes de conocimiento como contexto de trabajo para la investigación en general, y biomédica en particular, y los rasgos metodológicos que confieren los nuevos entornos de la web social. Las INSCRIPCIONES que cubren acreditación y almuerzo son limitadas. Excepcionalmente, y sólo para los residentes fuera de la Comunidad de Madrid, éstas incluirán también alojamiento (hasta completar cupo).Si desea asistir, por favor, proceda a realizar su INSCRIPCIÓN ONLINE Esperamos poder contar con su asistencia y le agradecemos la difusión que considere más más conveniente, tanto de esta información, como del PROGRAMA que puede descargar desde el sitio web de la Jornada.Recuerde la fecha límite de solicitud: 23 de junio
Más información en:www.fundacionlilly.com | www.medes.comAvda. de la Industria, 30. Alcobendas. 28108-Madrid, Spain. Tel.: (+34) 917 815 070
There are two stories in this item. First is the story itself, which is about Udacity's presence in India, and its provision of "education across platforms from the web to its mobile app and even offline sessions and ‘ hiring drives’ , codenamed ‘ Propel’ ." The second is the YourStory platform itself, which is basically an entrepreneur's network. Not just a database, it creates opportunities for them to tell their story in an interesting and engaging way. "We have published close to 60,000 stories of entrepreneurs and change-makers and helped more than 50,000 entrepreneurs access networking and funding opportunities," they write.[Link] [Comment]
Avui estem participant en la Jornada final de la crida Hack the School 2016-2017. El programa de la jornada serà el següent:
10 h. Benvinguda a la jornada.
This is a longish post devoted to the idea that the license isn't everything in reuse (Alan Levine has been making this point for a dog's age). OIn this post, prosocial behaviours are contrasted with "negative behaviors that occur with online content sharing more generally." For example: using bots to remix and repost CC-licensed designs; harassment of marginalized groups; not respecting people’ s desires and expectations about how content will be used; claiming CC0 public domain works as their own and monetizing them; and more. These are all allowed under the license, but are genuinely anti-social behaviours. What to do? Suggestions included a prosocial behaviour toolkit, tools that make prosocial behaviour easier, or reputational algorithms. But the very concept of 'prosocial' cannot be applied to amoral actors, or to those who follow a different morality: businesses and individuals, for example, who see the making of money as the only moral virtue. The only way to inhibit them is to create risk for anti-social behaviour. But this may require Creative Commons to take a sharply more political stance than I think it is willing to take.[Link] [Comment]
I'm sorry to read this. I'm taking it to reflect the impact of the transition from more traditional approaches to digital delivery (maybe with a bit of FutureLearn thrown in). And this: "The OU’ s finances have been hit particularly hard by the significant decline in the number of part-time students since the introduction of tuition fees, losing a third of students in the past decade." And of course the impact of policies that view education as a commodity to be sold rather than as a public services as core as fire departments, police servcies, roads and rail. The projected saving amount to about a quarter of the Open University's budget and there's no way the university will be the same again.[Link] [Comment]
"While students who use Turnitin are discouraged from copying other work," write the authors, "the company itself can strip mine and sell student work for profit." This has been true for some time, and has been tested in court. But the point of this article is to argue that, in general, "we participate in a digital culture owned and operated by others who have come to understand how easily they can harvest our intellectual property, data, and the minute details of our lives." We need to be aware of this and address this, but enacting agency, as Tim Amidon writes, iscomplex work "… [that] requires an increasingly sophisticated array of multiliteracies." The auithors offer a short rubric for evaluating these technologies, looking at who owns the tool, what data we have to provide to use the tool, and how the tool mediates pedagogy. And it is on these grounds - not merely legal grounds - where Tuirnitin is found wanting. They: “ undermine students’ authority over their own work; place students in a role of needing to be policed; create a hostile environment; supplant good teaching with the use of inferior technology; and violate student privacy."[Link] [Comment]
This post is an overview of e-portfolios and Mahara. It's basically a first-person video demo of the software, useful for people who don't want to download and install Mahara in order to see how it works.[Link] [Comment]
"Students as young as first grade can learn to solve complex linear equations— an algebraic concept that generally isn’ t taught until the seventh or eighth grade." How's that for a lede? This article (and accompanying podcast) are the result of marketing from Enlern, "a next-generation personalized learning platform built on the understanding that all learning is contextual and shaped by complex interactions between a student, teachers, curricula, peers, and other interdependent variables in the learning ecosystem." It would be good to see a more sceptical stance from this (and other) articles, but that would require analyzing the research, which would require a rather more in-depth analysis than these authors (or me, for that matter) to complete. But we can approximate. This paper, for example, reduces the problem of solving linear equations to a set of rule-selection patterns (I've seen this approach in logic as well). Compare with Kirschener, who would say the process of 'discovering' the correct rule to apply is unnecessary overhead. This paper likens rule selection to matrix problem-solving (it reminds me of my categroical converter). So is that what this is? Does that approach really generalize? Does the author talk with anyone else about this approach to learning? Sadly, no.[Link] [Comment]
After the final review of our EU-funded Learning Layers (LL) project (see my blogs from January and February) I have tried to report on the follow-up activities in North Germany and with our partners in construction sector. In my blogs in March, April and May I have reported on ongoing projects or new initiatives in which the use of Learning Toolbox (LTB) has played an important role. As these blogs have been based on particular meetings or workshops, the picture may have remained somewhat fragmentary. However, this week we have had a series of meetings with different counterparts. This has made it possible to create a group picture of ongoing activities.
Below I will report on the discussions in the three first meetings of this week in which I was present. Here it is worthwhile to note that none of these meetings was focusing only on specific uses of LTB as a dedicated tool for certain uses. Instead, all these meetings were discussing more comprehensive ecosystems of knowledge processes and software solutions (Ökosysteme für Wissensvermittlung und Software-Lösungen). In this context our counterparts were looking for different roles for LTB – as a part of an integrative software ecosystem – in promoting learning, training and workin in construction sector.1. Bau-ABC Rostrup: New uses for LTB in continuing vocational training (CVT) and projects
In the meeting in Bau-ABC we discussed the prospects of developing an integrative software ecosystem to address course management issues, continuing quality assurance and integration of innovative pedagogic designs to regular training provisions. Here the meeting of Bau-ABC training managers, software developers (including LTB developers) and ITB researchers was partly building on the progress in the project DigiProB (see my previous post). Partly it was building on parallel planning of software solutions for course management and quality assurance. The key point was in the shaping of a software ecology that is linked to traditional data management solutions and receives the ‘mature’ results from development platforms. This would be the case with the DigiProB platform that is being used by lecturers in continuing vocational training (CVT) to create integrated project-based learning designs for CVT participants). In such a software ecology the LTB would serve as the participants interface for accessing digital contents and communication channels in such projects.
Alongside the case of the DigiProB project we discussed parallel possibilities to work further with the Bau-ABC trainers’ group that has been developing more systematic approach to the theme ‘Health and Safety’ (Arbeitssicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz). In a similar way we discussed the possibilities to use LTB to support context-specific language learning of the Spanish apprentices (in the Mobipro-EU project) and key issues preparing them for their workplace-based training at construction sites. For these themes the Bau-ABC participants and the LTB developers presented recently created or modified LTB stacks as means to support learning in these contexts.
2. Agentur für Nachhaltiges Bauen in Verden: New software ecosystems for construction work
In the meeting at the agency for ecological construction work (Agentur) ITB researchers and LTB developers discussed with Thomas Isselhard on the new working perspectives from their point of view (Verden-based organisations and networks focusing on ecological construction work). As we remember, the LTB-use case in which Thomas demonstrated, how he can use the LTB as means to coordinate the work process at a construction site was well received in the workshop for construction companies in September 2016. Now, based on that basic stack we were looking at newer software solutions and mobile apps that can enhance the usability of LTB by craft trade companies. In this discussion a major role was given for construction process-oriented digital tools (Datenlogger) and for possibilities to develop Building Information Modelling (BIM) solutions from the the perspective of craft trades working together. In this context Gilbert Peffer presented the work of CIMNE with portable BIMtables and BIM screens as means to support knowledge sharing during construction processes. In this discussion we could link to a similar session in our previous meeting with Bau-ABC in which we had had a presentation on BIMtable and on a digital tool package (GreenHouse Koffer) for ecological construction work of carpenters. In our discussion in Verden the key point was that the integration of tools and software should support both construction processes and further maintenance. Therefore, the tools and software solutions should take into account planners, craftsmen and clients as the users. Here it is not possible to go into details but this meeting took further steps in planning of new projects with LTB as a key element in such software ecosystem.
3. Company H.: Rethinking the software ecosystem and promoting the competences of the staff
In the third meeting ITB researchers and LTB developers were discussing with representatives of the company H. In one of my previous blogs I have given a rather detailed picture of a workshop in which we discussed the preliminary findings of a mapping tour that the colleagues had done by visiting different sites of that company. Now in this meeting the colleagues presented a draft report on work flows, support systems, eventual gaps and risk zones and their recommendations. We had a rather detailed discussion – both in terms of situation assessment and possible improvements.
Here it is not relevant to give a detailed picture of the discussion. However, at a more general level it is worthwhile to note that the company representatives were looking at a holistic ecosystem for steering work processes, supporting real-time interaction and reporting as well as enhancing knowledge sharing within the company. From the organisational and pedagogic point it was interesting that the company was interested in the potentials of LTB, both from the perspective of process optimisation as well as enhancing the learning processes of apprentices. Moreover, the company was interested in supporting free spaces for exchanges among the apprentices and for organising events to take up their ideas, concerns and wishes. However, with all these interests the company was looking for improvements that could be implemented with the agreement of the staff and with a perspective to integrate different staff members to common processes.
– – –
I guess this is enough of these meetings. For me this series of discussions was inspiring as I could observe clear steps forward on several fronts. Moreover, this experience gave me a new perspective to ‘digital transformation’. As I now see it, such transformations are not just matters of pushing new technologies upon users (or to substitute a great number of users). Neither can such transformations be characterised as equipping of users with magic tools that radically enhance their powers. Instead, the innovative tools – in order to contribute to digital transformations – have to fit into emerging ecosystems of knowledge processes, steering, sharing and reporting as well as co-design processes in which developers become aware of such requirements. In all these meetings I saw signs of such processes. I am looking forward to observe the next steps.
More blogs to come …
Reading the Word and the World: A Critical Literary and Autoethnographic Analysis of Educational Renovation in Vietnam
This is a lovely PhD thesis (197 page PDF) that explores aspects of Vietnamese education from the perspective of critical pedagogy and critical literacy. Critical literacy is "about much more than learning to read the 'word'; a learner must learn to understand the political and social practices that constitute their reality before she/ he can make sense of the written words that describe that reality." Conversely (from Olsen and Friere), "what is making them (famous people and intellectuals) cultural illiterates . . . is their prejudice against race, against class, against the nation.” The author focuses on the process of 'educational renovation' where we see that "students reject a class-based conception in favor of a more humanistic conception of the human being" based on "their experiences or interactions with books published outside the classrooms." But the emancipatory perspective of critical pedagogy was not integrated into he educational process. There's a contrast between "the seeming conformity, obedience, and resignation that many present in formal settings, and the torrents of 'critical literacy' when they express themselves at the cafeteria." Image: Vietnamnet.[Link] [Comment]
I have reached a milestone in my life. Today I have completed 60 orbits of the sun. I don't feel any different physically, but in my mind it has given me cause to reflect. I often talk about many of the experiences that have shaped my life, formed my personality and directed my journey. Here's a brief reflection:
In the 70s my time was spent learning my 'trade', exploring the new world that was opening up in the form of educational technology, and discovering the true power of computers for the first time. While still in school I was inspired by a visit to a technology museum. Later, in my first professional role as a technician, I built a desktop personal computer from a kit, soldering all the components into place, connecting and building, testing and finally using. We really had very little idea what we would be using these new devices for, but we had a beginning.
In the 80s, I had changed my career, moving from teacher education to work in nurse education. I began to experiment with microcomputers, finding ways to use them in support of learning. I learnt to program. I placed a BBC micro outside my office, loaded with a menu of half a dozen simple education programs. I connected it to a printer, wrote a short routine so that it would print out a summary of all the student activities and I stood back to watch what happened next. I was astounded at how often it was used. The students were queuing up. Soon there were 2 computers in the corridor, and then later an entire suite, networked in a dedicated computer suite. This was the beginnings of computer assisted learning.
In the 90s, change accelerated. The web arrived, and we found ourselves beginning to network across the globe, forming the first social networks. I began to involve myself in the open learning movement, encouraging my colleagues to produce learning content in accessible formats. I began to experiment with satellite and video teleconferencing, which emerged from research I did during my teacher training. I completed a degree at the Open University in psychology, which piqued my interest further toward all forms of learning - both the theory and practice. The end of the decade saw me working on one of the largest distance education projects of its time. I learnt how to connect the dots together, integrating technology into practice, and also worked on a similar distance education project in the USA.
The 00s was a time of more rapid change, where we witnessed the emergence of the social web, and mobile phones became smart. I was now back in teacher education again, where I began to experiment with blogs, wikis, social networks and other Web 2.0 tools, using them with my students while establishing my own online presence. I completed my Masters and research degrees during this time, and began to travel the world, speaking about my research in many countries. I discovered that social media was one of the most powerful means of connecting with ideas, people and events. Twitter became the most valuable and reliable continuing professional development I had ever experienced. I led several initiatives, including editing high profile ed tech journals, leading academic programmes and chairing professional bodies.
The 10s have been equally busy for me. I have consolidated my position as a researcher, author, academic and speaker, always learning as I go forward. Although I have just recently stepped away from full time academia, I will continue to work in all sectors of education and training, and will continue to be a global educator for as long as I am needed, working with people and organisations that have as much passion as I do to see high quality, open and accessible education for all. It all began a long time ago.
Image from Wikimedia Commons
60 years ago today by Steve Wheeler was written in Jonkoping, Sweden and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.Posted by Steve Wheeler from Learning with e's
In our work on Labour Market Information Systems, we frequently talk about the differences between labour market information and labour market intelligence in terms of making sense and meanings from statistical data. The graph above is a case in point. It is one of the outcomes of a survey on Graduate Employment, undertaken by the UK Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA).
Like many such studies, the data is not complete. Yet, looking at the pay by gender reveals what WONKHE call “a shocking picture of the extent of the pay gap even straight out of university, and how different subject areas result in a diverse range of pay differences.”
Understanding why there is such a gap is harder. One reason could be that even with equal pay legislation, employers simply prefer to employ male staff for higher paid and more senior jobs. Also, the graph shows the subject in which the students graduated, not the occupational area in which they are employed. Thus the strikingly higher pay for mean who undertook nursing degrees may be due to them gaining highly paid jobs outside nursing. Another probable factor in explaining some of the pay gap is that the figures include both full and part time workers. Nationally far more women are employed part time, than men. However, that explanation itself raises new questions.
The data from HESA shows the value of data and at the same time the limitations of just statistical information. The job now is to find out why there is such a stark gender pay gap and what can be done about it. Such ‘intelligence’ will require qualitative research to go beyond the bald figures.
Jun 15, 2017
The issues of fake news and digital literacy have received a thorough airing over ther last year or so, but despite that, we still have too much of the former and too little of the latter. The responses, as Bryan Alexander characterizes them, fall into two camps: (lower-case-d) democrats, who feel people can and should learn to make their own information choices, and neo-gatekeepers, who call on regulations to govern Facebook and Twitter and the rest (and maybe even the traiditional media) to help people cope. I fall mostly into the former camp, though I do think that the proliferation of hatred and abuse have no place in any form of media. What also cponcerns me is that the widely understood definitions of digital literacy, critical thinking, and related concepts, are incorrect. For example, Alexander states that "digital literacy means learners are social, participatory makers." Well, no - this describes a practice, not a literacy. And the western-centric perspective of commentators continues to fustrate. In a world where most people are young, how can you say "it’ s old people, in big cities, afraid of the sky?" People today need to learn how to read, more than ever - not books and newspapers and such (though that wouldn't hurt), but signs and portents, geographies and cultures, people and technologies. That's not digital literacy, especially - that's just literacy - or, as Friere would say, "reading the world".[Link] [Comment]