agregador de noticias
Kelli McGraw, Aug 29, 2016
As is so often the case, an answer to what appears to be a simple questions results in layers of complexity. Even the question itself bears examining (is it a marketing ploy? for example). It is essentially this: should problem-based learning employ an assessment grid to evaluate soft skills? The answer takes us through four sets of resources, each of which merits more investigation on its own:
- the Essential Fluencies website "as an alternative set of ‘ soft skills’ "
- the General Capabilities in the Australian Curriculum
- the Buck Institute for Education (BIE) rubrics
- the Partnership for 21st century thinking 4 Cs research series
When I saw 'essential fluencies' the first thing I thought of were my own 'critical literacies'. It reminds me that all of this thinking has been done before and though the approaches are very different I should be sure I understand what's already out there before proposing to change it. I also remarked to myself as I read through these the degree of commercial and private sector involvement in the development and marketing of these models.
Doug Peterson introduces us to a lovely application called FoxType, which I tried out this morning. Essentially, the idea is that it provides a number of services to help you understand your own writing. The most visually appealing is the parser, which will diagram your sentence as you write. But iit also assesses sentences for things like politeness and vocabulary. Some of these are very arbitrary - I, for example, would consider writing in the first person to be more polite, and less stuffy and formal. FoxType takes the opposite view. But who cares? The ultimate goal here (in the 'still to come' department) is to create a general writing scaffold. It will help you write well as you write. This is the tip of a much larger iceberg.[Link] [Comment]
This post links to a new podcast from Michael Wesch (which I've already added to Ed Radio). Wesch is quoted: "we have to help them achieve all this within a bureaucratic structure that demands that we frame our goals in a few neat bullet points at the top of our syllabus in a section called: Student Learning Outcomes, often called SLOs." Here are the SLOs Wesch really wants to write:
- Ask questions that burn in their soul and take them farther than they ever thought possible.
- Open themselves up to others and new experiences, to challenge their taken-for-granted assumptions
- Cross rivers of doubt and conquer mountains of fear to set themselves free.
Stripped of the adjectives, this is actually a pretty good set of outcomes: ask questions, be open to new experiences, and conquer one's fears. Fisch comments, 'I wonder why it is that we shy away from discussions around outcomes such as these, and obsess over measuring how our students do on discrete, isolated skills that very few of them will ever need to actually use."[Link] [Comment]
'Tis the season to dissect the "failure" of MOOCs - or, to be specific, the rarefied Silicon Valley version of MOOCs, which is all anyone ever talks about. That narrative was that "MOOC startups Udacity, Coursera, and edX all promised that their free online courses with massive enrollment figures would 'democratize education.'" Of course that didn't happen. More interesting is what these MOOCs identified as the core value proposition. "“ At the end of the day, the true value proposition of education is employment,” Thrun told Fast Company... This new narrative, according to George Siemens, one of the originators of the MOOC concept, casts education as simply skills training." But of course that's not democratization at all. The objective of education is and ought to be personal empowerment, to help people become less dependent on, say, a job, and more able to build networks, innovate, create value, and achieve purpose in life. But it takes more than just free content to support that. It takes a community, a network.[Link] [Comment]
Jonathan Rees citing Alex Usher is a bit like Bernie Sanders citing Ronald Reagan. There's an incongruity there. Usher's point is that MOOCs never made money. I don't think Rees lost any sleep over that (quite the contrary; I think he would have been worried were MOOCs hauling in the cash). Rees defends the traditional approach. "Traditional education with its inefficiency derived from the close proximity between professors and their students has proved more resilient than its wannabe disruptors ever imagined." Why? "Online courses without a live crew manning them can be very lonely experiences." But the Silicon Valley MOOCs were always an outlier, despite the hype they got from the Silicon Valley press. Conviviality and sociability have been the hallmarks of online learning since the beginning, and Silicon Valley ignored that history at its own expense.[Link] [Comment]
¿Pero hay algo de verdad en todo eso? ¿Qué está pasando en las aulas?
Ludwig van Boekhuizen, de AdvancED Research, ha publicado un informe de investigación devastador (1*). El informe se basa en 142.606 observaciones, cada una de una duración mínima de 20 minutos, realizadas por observadores entrenados, en escuelas con niños entre 6 y 12 años, en 12 países, incluyendo Estados Unidos (2*).
Como el estudio está en Inglés, voy a resumir los resultados: En más de la mitad de las aulas no hubo evidencias de que los alumnos utilizaran tecnologías para trabajar con la información. Los resultados son peores si hablamos de investigar o crear: sólo en 1 de cada 3 aulas se observó al menos alguna evidencia de ese uso.
Estos son los datos.
Utiliza herramientas digitales o tecnologías para buscar, evaluar o utilizar información para el aprendizaje
Valoraciónn%No se observa75.08852,7Se observa de alguna forma16.14011,3Se muestra evidente22.61415,9Es muy evidente28.74320,2Total142.606100,0
Utiliza herramientas digitales o tecnologías para investigar, resolver problemas y/o crear trabajos originales para el aprendizaje
Valoraciónn%No se observa90.24163,3Se observa de alguna forma12.5318,8Se muestra evidente16.99311,9Es muy evidente22.82116,0Total142.586100,0
Utiliza herramientas digitales o tecnologías para comunicarse y trabajar de modo colaborativo para aprender
Valoraciónn%No se observa92.19064,6Se observa de alguna forma13.6729,6Se muestra evidente16.91611,9Es muy evidente19.80713,9Total142.585100,0
Así que cuando oiga sorprendido que los alumnos digitales utilizan las tecnologías para jugar y no para estudiar, no se sorprenda: es lo que ven en la escuela.
Y es que, digan lo que digan los informes gubernamentales, es lo que tienen los mitos y los sueños, que los “sueños, sueños son”.
A pesar de que carece de fecha de publicación, no ha sido publicado por ninguna revista (es una publicación de la misma empresa que lo ha hecho) y faltan datos de cómo se ha hecho, algunos datos que incluyen permiten darle un elevado nivel de credibilidad. Asumiendo que el estudio es de este año, podemos citarlo como:
Broekhuizen, L. (2016). The Paradox of Classroom Technology: Despite Proliferation and Access, Students Not Using Technology for Learning. AdvancED Research.
Se trata de la aplicación de un instrumento de valoración de entornos de aprendizaje que analiza múltiples aspectos del aprendizaje y de las actividades en el aula (30 ítems) entre ellos, algunos relacionados con el uso de tecnologías, y que son a los que se refiere este estudio.
En cada ítem se valora si es muy evidente, evidente, algo evidente o no observado.
El instrumento de análisis se denomina “Effective Learning Environments Observation Tool (ELEOT)”. Se trata de una empresa de investigación educativa y no una institución, no es abierta e incluye pagos por suscripción.
Información sobre esta herramienta en:
Y puede encontrar resultados completos del año 2012 en:
CeDec: Explicando para toda la clase.
Distribuida bajo licencia CC
This post offers me an opportunity to plug Ed Radio. I started Ed Radio in 2003, right at the beginning of the age of podcasts. Here's what it looked like back then. Today I harvest RSS feeds, extract the references to MP3 files, and redistribute the collection of links in the form of a daily podcast feed. If you are producing a podcast in the field of learning, new media, or education technology, drop me a line and I'll add it to my list.
This post is Rob Watson describing his upcoming podcast "based around the idea of what it means to be sociable in the Twenty-First Century." he's investing in audio quality, as he should: "I’ ve invested in some recording equipment, with a Zoom H6 multichannel recorder with four mono microphones, and a line-in feed for music input. I’ m also hoping that we can use a friends coffee shop as our base for recording the sessions, as its a great environment to relax and chill." I'm looking forward to it.[Link] [Comment]
John Oliver examines the performance of charter schools in the United States and finds enough wrong with them to fill an 18 minute comedy video. As we can see from this report, while government may be less efficient, businesses are much less likely to behave responsibly or obey the law, which means the private sector cannot be trusted with high-stakes enterprises like education. Actually, as we see in this report, government is not less efficient either, with charter schools accounting for some of the worst outcomes in the school system. There are ways to promote choice, but privatizing the school system isn't among them.[Link] [Comment]
I was at the football game last night, and as usual, there was the tribute to the troops. We should reconsider who we set up role models in society. If the only people we honour for service to the public are those who go to war, there will be a ceaseless demand for more war. I can think of many more who make sacrifices for the pubic good: doctors, postal workers, embassy officials, environmental activists, child welfare advocates, and many many more. Children learn by adopting role models, and we want to make sure they have as many anti-war advocates to choose from as they do warriors.[Link] [Comment]
Contact North | Contact Nord, the organizer and host of the 27th International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) World Conference, launches the official portal for the World Conference on Online Learning: Teaching in a Digital Age – Re-Thinking Teaching & Learning to be held in Toronto, Canada from October 17 – 19, 2017. (For an earlier post on ICDE, Contact North, and the conference, click here.)
The theme of the World Conference on Online Learning is Teaching in the Digital Age – Re-Thinking Teaching & Learning with the program focused on five tracks:
- Emerging Pedagogies and Designs for Online Learning
- Expanding Access, Openness and Flexibility
- Changing Models of Assessment
- New Delivery Tools and Resources for Learning
- Re-Designing Institutional Business Models
- Details on the theme and tracks
- Important Dates
- Information on our host city, Toronto, Canada
- Sign-up for our e-newsletter
This will be one of the major conferences on online learning in 2017, with participants from all over the world. Even though the conference is targeting a total of 2,000 participants, early registration is recommended (when registration opens) because of the likely number of people wanting to participate from Canada and the USA alone.
Registration will open in October 2016 (sign up for their newsletter to get the exact date).
Declaration of interest: I am a Contact North Research Associate and have been engaged in some of the preliminary planning. If the choice of conference title is familiar, it was not my suggestion, although I have not opposed it.
Ja podeu baixar-vos i imprimir l'agenda 2016-2017 per a ensenyants. S'accepten suggeriments de millora de cara al proper curs. Una observació: heu d'imprimir els fulls a una cara, llevat dels tres darrers. Aquests són una proposta per imprimir a la part del darrera. Si no us agraden les propostes les podeu personalitzar al vostre gust. Recomano utilitzar folis gruixuts, per tal de millorar la qualitat d'impressió.
Espero que us sigui d'utilitat i ... bon curs !
Agenda escolar dels països de parla catalana 2016_2017 by Ramon Barlam on Scribd
“Members of Congress are in an unusual position as they demand an explanation for Mylan NV's 400 percent price hike for the EpiPen and focus attention squarely on its CEO: Heather Bresch,” Bloomberg reports. Bresch, whose father is a senator from West Virginia, had successfully lobbied to have Epipens, which contain life-saving anti-allergy medication, be purchased by public schools. Bresch had previously been involved in another education-related scandal when, in 2007, it was revealed she had been awarded an MBA by West Virginia University even though she’d only completed half of the required credits.
Via Inside Higher Ed: “U.S. Senator Ron Johnson, Republican in a tight re-election battle, says quality documentaries could replace many instructors, and blames tenured professors for preserving the ‘higher education cartel.’” Ken Burns disagrees.
Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “Top U.S. Higher-Education Official Says Innovation Will Best Serve the ‘New Normal’ Students.” (Mindwire Consulting’s Phil Hill has a response to Ted Mitchell’s claim that the College Scoreboard was on of the administration’s big higher ed wins: “College Scorecard: With victories like these, who needs failures?”)
“Legislation to Reclaim University Invention from the Trolls” from the EFF.
Via the press release: “The U.S. Department of Education announced today that it has reached an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE), settling the litigation involving the Department’s claim of South Carolina’s failure to maintain state financial support for special education and related services.”
Via the press release: “The U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) announced today that the Lodi Unified School District in Lodi, California, has entered into a resolution agreement to end the racially discriminatory impact of the district’s discipline policies and address concerns that it disciplines African-American students more harshly than white students.”
More press releases from the Department of Education in the for-profit higher ed section below.Education in the Courts
Via NPR: “In a major victory for teachers unions in California, the state Supreme Court has upheld teacher tenure laws. By a 4–3 vote, a divided court decided not to hear Vergara vs. California, a case challenging state tenure laws.” More via Sherman Dorn and The LA Times.
“Wells Fargo to Pay $4 Million to Settle Student-Loan Servicing Probe,” says The Wall Street Journal. Did anyone mention that this is the bank that Amazon has partnered with for its new student loan program? (Me, I guess.)
Via NPR: “Months after the Obama administration advised school districts that transgender students should be given access to bathrooms based on their gender identity, a federal judge in Texas has blocked the guidance from going into effect – for now.” More via The Atlantic.
Later in the week… Via the AP: “Texas and four other Republican-led states filed another lawsuit Tuesday seeking to roll back the Obama administration’s efforts to strengthen transgender rights, saying new federal nondiscrimination health rules could force doctors to act contrary to their medical judgment or religious beliefs.”
“A federal judge on Monday denied a request by three faculty members at the University of Texas at Austin for a preliminary injunction to keep concealed guns out of their classrooms,” The Chronicle of Higher Education reports.
Via the Columbus Dispatch: “A Franklin County judge rejected arguments from the Department of Education that the state’s largest online charter school prematurely sued the state over an ongoing attendance audit.” That state: Ohio.
For more on charters in Ohio, see Sunday night’s segment from John Oliver, detailed in the “meanwhile on campus” section below.
Via Education Week: “The founder and former CEO of an online public school that educates thousands of Pennsylvania students pleaded guilty Wednesday to federal tax fraud, acknowledging he siphoned more than $8 million from The Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School through for-profit and nonprofit companies he controlled.” The CEO in question: Nicholas Trombetta.
Via the Chiago Sun Times: “A suburban father and son accused in 2014 of scamming public school districts out of millions – only to post diamonds and rubies to get out of jail – pleaded guilty Tuesday to mail fraud. Jowhar Soultanali, 61, of Morton Grove, and his son, Kabir Kassam, 37, of Wheeling, each face a maximum of 20 years in prison after admitting to U.S. District Judge James Zagel they broke the law. An attorney also entered guilty pleas for the pair’s Niles-based tutoring businesses, Brilliance Academy Inc. and Babbage Net School Inc.”
Via Ebony: “A federal judge ruled Monday that the process of electing school board members for a district that includes Ferguson, Missouri, is biased against black voters and must be revised before another election will be allowed.”
More lawsuit news in the sports section below.Testing, Testing…
Common Core test scores released and California’s scores were up a little bit, Connecticut’s were up a little bit more, and Maryland’s were better in math. But many students still aren’t “college ready” based on their scores.
Via The Texas Tribune: “The Texas Education Agency is penalizing the New Jersey-based company that develops and administers the state’s controversial STAAR tests – to the tune of $20.7 million – over widespread logistical and technical issues reported with the spring administration, Education Commissioner Mike Morath announced Tuesday.”
Via Inside Higher Ed: “Average ACT scores are down this year. ACT officials attribute the drop to the increasing percentage of high school seniors who have taken the test.”
Education Week on opt-outs: “Education leaders in states where resistance to taking annual exams remains strong are bracing for penalties that the U.S. Department of Education could send down in the coming months for falling short of testing enough qualified students last school year.”Online Education (The Once and Future “MOOC”)
“Why America’s MOOC pioneers have abandoned ship” by Jonathan Rees.
“MOOCs Are Dead. Long Live Online Higher Education,” Phil Hill pronounces.Coding Bootcamps (The Once and Future “For-Profit Higher Ed”)
From the press release: “The U.S. Department of Education today took a series of actions to protect students and taxpayers by banning ITT Educational Services, Inc. (ITT) from enrolling new students using federal financial aid funds, and stepping up financial oversight of the for-profit educational provider.” More from Angus Johnston, Inside Higher Ed, and John Warner.
Via The LA Times: “Insurer pays $13.5 million to resolve federal claims over defunct Marinello beauty school.”Meanwhile on Campus
Our commitment to academic freedom means that we do not support so called “trigger warnings,” we do not cancel invited speakers because their topics might prove controversial, and we do not condone the creation of intellectual “safe spaces” where individuals can retreat from ideas and perspectives at odds with their own.
John Oliver’s Last Week Tonight took on charter schools. Predictable responses were predictable. Following the broadcast, Robert Pondiscio wrote an op-ed for US News arguing that this all reveals “How Education Reform Lost Its Mojo.”
Elsewhere in charters, via the East Bay Times: “On the first day of school, more than 500 new students swarmed into Livermore public schools, the vast majority fleeing the city’s two embattled charter schools in light of a litany of accusations ranging from fiscal mismanagement to criminal wrongdoing.” The schools in question: Livermore Valley Charter School and Livermore Valley Charter Preparatory, both run by Tri-Valley Learning Corp.
Via The Washington Post: “Parents at a high-achieving Washington charter school say their children are not being offered physical education classes despite a law that requires the city’s schools to make such classes available to all students.” The charter in question: BASIS DC.
The New York Times on recent resolutions by the NAACP and by the Movement for Black Lives: “Condemnation of Charter Schools Exposes a Rift Over Black Students.”
Via Politico: “Roughly 70,000 Louisiana school children remain out of school because of flooding, and state Superintendent John White tells Morning Education that students in three districts won’t likely be back in class until after Labor Day.”
Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “Stanford Bans Hard Liquor From Undergraduate Parties.”
Sex toys, not guns. Via The New York Times: “University of Texas Students Find the Absurd in a New Gun Law.” More on the campus carry law in the courts section above.
Via The LA Times: “Herb Alpert Foundation to donate $10.1 million to LACC – making studies for music majors tuition-free.” (Would that all big donations like this go to community colleges and not elite private schools.)
Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “Gunmen Attack American U. in Afghanistan, Killing at Least 12 People.”
Via Quartz: “Harvey Mudd College took on gender bias and now more than half its computer-science majors are women.”
Via The Atlantic: “Good School, Rich School; Bad School, Poor School –The inequality at the heart of America's education system.”
I can’t think of anything I loathe more about back-to-school each year than the release of the Beloit College Mindset list. Here’s the latest one for the Class of 2020.Go, School Sports Team!
Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “Citing concerns about North Carolina‘s controversial ’bathroom bill,’ the University of Vermont has canceled a scheduled women’s basketball game against the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.”
Via The Seattle Times: “Bellevue football parents, ex-booster club file lawsuit to overturn sanctions.”From the HR Department
“In Victory for Union Efforts, NLRB Rules Columbia U. Grad Students Are Employees,” reads The Chronicle of Higher Education headline (and then the publication spent much of the week fearmongering about the implications). Via Undercommoning: “The NLRB Columbia Decision and the Future of Academic Labor Struggles.” And the struggle will continue as Columbia will likely appeal.
Via Inside Higher Ed: “the National Labor Relations Board on Tuesday ruled that instructors of religious studies may be excluded from part-time faculty unions at two Roman Catholic institutions.” The universities: St. Xavier University and Seattle University.
“Coding Startup Treehouse Trims Staff to ‘Cross the Chasm to Profitability’,” Edsurge reports. 21% of the staff were laid off from the company, which has raised $12.35 million in funding. More from founder Ryan Carson.
“Ken Starr Resigns Faculty Position at Baylor,” The Chronicle of Higher Education reports.
“The CEO of a Pennsylvania charter school is resigning after a mailer promoting the school mentioned a 2015 drug arrest at a nearby public high school,” Education Week reports. The CEO: Loraine Petrillo. The charter: Innovative Arts Academy Charter School.
Via The New York Times: “Firing of Teacher Battling Cancer Prompts an Outcry in China.”Upgrades and Downgrades
From the venture capital firm Charles River Ventures (with education investments including NoRedInk, the Flatiron School, and Wonder Workshop), a fellowship program to pay for startup founders’ visa:
1) F*ck Trump. https://t.co/gjuweRd9kd— Charles River VC (@CRV) August 24, 2016
Goldman Sachs, according to The New York Times, will now offer loans “for the little guy,” whatever the hell that means. (Other than "the little guy" getting screwed over, of course.)
The Verge offers its “Back to School Guide 2016,” which includes a $235 backpack and a $42 mug if you need an example of how woefully out-of-touch tech journalists can be.
Via Techcrunch: “Amazon launches the Kindle Reading Fund to expand digital reading around the world.”
Via Fast Company: “How Musical.ly Became A Pop Culture Phenomenon.” Spoiler alert: by pivoting away from ed-tech.
Via Education Week: “Parent Advocacy Group Warns of Ed-Tech ‘Threats’.”
Via PC World: “Why Google plans to stop supporting your Chromebook after five years.”
Farsight Security looks at who has dot edu domains. Spoiler alert: it’s pretty common for non-US / non-universities to have them.
“Can Marketing Automation Bring College Enrollment Numbers Up?” asks Edsurge. Interesting question considering that shady marketing practices are among the reasons that for-profit schools like ITT – see the for-profit higher ed section above – are getting sued and sanctioned by the government.Funding and Acquisitions (The Business of Ed-Tech)
“Mark Zuckerberg Sells $95 Million Worth Of Facebook Shares For Charity,” says The Huffington Post. Except it’s not a charity. It’s for the Chan-Zuckerberg Initiative, a for-profit investment vehicle.
InCred has raised $75 million from Anshu Jain (co-chairman of the management board at Deutsche Bank), Bhupinder Singh, and Ranjan Pai. The Mumbai-based company offers loans – consumer loans, education loans, and the like.
The Omidyar Network has invested $3 million in Khan Academy. (The funding is labeled as a grant.)
Khan Academy has used that funding to acquire the kids’ app maker Duck Duck Moose.
Makkajai has raised $200,000 in seed funding from Anand Chandrasekaran, Ananth Narayanan, and Mekin Maheshwari.
Kendall Hunt Publishing has acquired RCL Benziger. Terms were not disclosed.Data, Privacy, and Surveillance
Bored with Pokemon Go? Try this exciting new app to “catch ’em all” and participate in a mainstreaming of surveillance culture: a mobile app for finding bank robbers, built by the FBI.
Via the BBC: “University hit 21 times in one year by ransomware.” The university: Bournemouth, which apparently has a cybersecurity centre.
“California district embraces wearable tech in the classroom,” says Education Dive. The district: The Tustin Unified School District. The surveillance and privacy questions: brushed off.
Via The Guardian: “Facebook’s new app for teens is ‘always public and viewable by everyone’.”
Bill Fitzgerald on “Students and Social Media.”
Via The Trade: “Industry worried about confidentiality of blockchain.” I lol’d.Data and “Research”
21 states still allow corporal punishment. “[M]ore than 109,000 students were paddled, swatted, or otherwise physically punished in U.S. classrooms in 2013–14, according to Education Week Research Center analyses of the most recent wave of federal civil rights data.” Black students are disproportionately more likely to experience physical punishment than white students.
Via NPR: “Research On Tulsa’s Head Start Program Finds Lasting Gains.”
Edutechnica has new data on LMS trends, including installations and migrations.
Via Edsurge: “Why Your Financial Advisor Doesn’t Recommend Edtech Stocks.” And yet, the money still flows to the sector…
Via ProPublica: “Median Income Is Down, But Public College Tuition Is Way Up.”
“Paying Tuition With Credit Cards Is Costly,” according to a study reported by Inside Higher Ed.
Via Education Week’s Market Brief: “Public Woefully Misunderstands Education Spending, Study Finds.” Why, it’s almost like there’s a huge failure in education journalism or something…
Icon credits: The Noun Project
BBC News, Aug 26, 2016
Readers of my social network accounts will know that I have shuttered my Facebook accounts and ceased using that service. The reason is that Facebook disabled the ad blocker I use in Firefox in order to force advertisements into the news stream. I have also made sure to uninstall WhatsApp (which is owned by Facebook) from my phone. You should too. It's not just that WhatsApp will start sending you advertisements (and remember, you are paying for the data transfer WhatsApp uses). WhatsApp is also going to share your phone number with Facebook, according to newly updated terms of service. Facebook asserts, "Nothing you share on WhatsApp, including your messages, photos, and account information, will be shared onto Facebook or any of the Facebook family of apps for others to see." But it should be noted that, according to the BBC report, "Facebook will still receive data in some situations." So there's that.[Link] [Comment]
Adobe, Aug 26, 2016
Adobe has launched a new e-learning community which they say is "a place where you can connect with peers, engage with a universe of experts, and pick top Adobe brains on just about anything. From blogs, tutorials, and product conversations, to event notifications, news and updates and much more." It seems mostly focused on Captivate, which is not surprising given their push to market their Captivate LMS, which was announced last year. Here's a review from last December. The site encourages you to "play all kinds of content seamlessly with our Fluidic Player that also allows note-taking to facilitate revision. Foster a learning culture using gamification and mobile learning." Here's a marketing piece from Adobe on the LMS.[Link] [Comment]